Centaurea patula، گونه‌ای فراموش‌شده از تیرۀ مرکبان برای فلور ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی


استادیار گروه باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، ملاثانی، اهواز، ایران



جنس Centaurea یکی از بزرگ‌ترین و پیچیده‌ترین تاکسون‌های تیرۀ مرکبان (Asteraceae) در جهان است که عمدتاً در اروپا، منطقۀ مدیترانه و جنوب‌غرب آسیا پراکنش دارد. چندنیایی‌بودن این جنس سبب شده است به‌تازگی این تاکسون به چند جنس تک‌نیا تقسیم شود. Centaurea حدود 109 گونه و 31 بخش در ایران دارد که در بیشتر مناطق کشور حضور دارند. پژوهش حاضر، حاصل مطالعۀ تاکسونومیکی دقیق گونه‌های بخش Ammocyanus در هرباریوم‌های مختلف است. در مطالعۀ حاضر مشخص شد دو محل تیپ در پروتولوگ گونۀ C. patula مشخص شده‌اند که یکی از آنها به ایران مربوط است؛ این در حالیست که در فلورا ایرانیکا، اشاره‌ای به این گونه نشده و درحقیقت، C. patula گونه‌ای فراموش‌شده برای فلور ایران است؛ بنابراین در پژوهش حاضر، C. patula دوباره گونه‌ای موجود برای فلور ایران مطرح شد و برای جلوگیری از ابهام در کاربرد آن، گونۀ یادشده تیپ‌بندی و تصویر لکتوتیپ آن ارائه شد.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Centaurea patula (Asteraceae), A Forgotten Species for the Flora of Iran

نویسنده [English]

  • Kazem Negaresh
Assistant professor, Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Mollasani, Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Centaurea is one of the most complex and largest genera of the family Asteraceae in the World. It is mainly distributed in Europe, the Mediterranean region, and southwest Asia. This genus is polyphyletic and has recently been divided into some monophyletic genera. In Iran, Centaurea contains 109 species in 31 sections that are present in most parts of the country. This research is the result of exact taxonomic study of species of the section Ammocyanus in different herbaria. During this study, it was found that two syntypes collections were cited for C. patula protologue that one of them is attributed to Iran. However, there is no mention of this species in Flora Iranica and in fact C. patula is a forgotten species for Iranian flora. So, C. patula is treated in this study as an existing taxon for the flora of Iran. To clarify the application of this name, it was thus typified and its lectotype image was presented.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Asteraceae
  • Centaurea
  • Taxonomy
  • Forgotten Species
  • Typification
Beentje, H. (2010) The Kew Plant Glossary: An illustrated dictionary of plant terms. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK.
Boissier, E. (1849) Diagnosis Plantarum Orientalium Novarum. 1(10). Lipsiae [Leipzig].
Boissier, E. (1875) Centaurea L. In: Flora Orientalis (Ed. Boissier, E.) 3: 614-695. H. Georg, Geneva and Basel.
Bremer, K. (1994) Asteraceae: Cladistics and classification. Timber Press, Portland.
Candolle, A. P. de (1838) Prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis, 6: 1-687. Treuttel and Würtz, Paris.
Dostál, J. (1976) Centaurea L. In: Flora Europaea (Eds. Tutin, T. G., Heywood, V. H., Walters, S. M. and Webb, D. A.) 4: 254-300. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Garcia-Jacas, N., Susanna, A., Mozaffarian, V. and Ilarslan, R. (2000) The natural delimitation of Centaurea (Asteraceae: Cardueae): ITS sequence analysis of the Centaurea jacea group. Plant Systematics and Evolution 223: 185-199.
Garcia-Jacas, N., Susanna, A., Garnatje, T. and Vilatersana, R. (2001) Generic delimitation and phylogeny of the Centaureinae (Asteraceae): a combined nuclear and chloroplast DNA analysis. Annals of Botany 87: 503-515.
Garcia-Jacas, N., Uysal, T., Romashchenko, K., Suárez-Santiago, V. N., Ertuğrul, K. and Susanna, A. (2006) Centaurea revisited: a molecular survey of the Jacea group. Annals of Botany 98: 741-753.
Greuter, W., Wagenitz, G., Agababian, M. and Hellwig, F. H. (2001) Proposal to conserve the name Centaurea (Compositae) with a conserved type. Taxon 50: 1201-1205.
Greuter, W. (2003) The Euro+Med treatment of Cardueae (Compositae)-generic concepts and required new names. Willdenowia 33: 49-61.
Hellwig, F. H. (2004) Centaureinae (Asteraceae) in the Mediterranean-History of ecogeographical radiation. Plant Systematics and Evolution 246: 137-162.
Hilpold, A., Garcia-Jacas, N., Vilatersana, R. and Susanna, A. (2014) Taxonomical and nomenclatural notes on Centaurea: a proposal of classification, a description of new sections and subsections, and a species list of the redefined section Centaurea. Collectanea Botanica (Barcelona) 33: 1-29.
Jeffrey, C. (2007) Compositae, introduction with key to tribes. In: The families and genera of vascular plants (Eds. Kadereit, J. W. and Jeffrey, C.) 8: 61-87. Springer Verlag, Berlin.
López, E., Devesa, J. A. and Arnelas, I. (2011) Taxonomic study in the Centaurea longei complex (Asteraceae). Annales Botanici Fennici 48: 1-12.
McNeill, J. and Turland, N. J. (2011) Synopsis of proposals on botanical nomenclature- Melbourne 2011: A review of the proposals concerning the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature submitted to the XVIII International Botanical Congress. Taxon 60(1): 243-286.
McNeill, J. (2014) Holotype specimens and type citations: General issues. Taxon 63: 1112-1113.
Negaresh, K., Rahiminejad, M. R. and Ranjbar, M. (2014) A taxonomic study on Centaurea sect. Rhizocalathium and C. sect. Pseudoseridia (Asteraceae, Cardueae- Centaureinae)in Iran. Phytotaxa 174(1): 43-60.
Negaresh, K. and Rahiminejad, M. R. (2014) A contribution to the taxonomy of Centaurea sect. Cynaroides (Asteraceae, Cardueae- Centaureinae) in Iran. Phytotaxa 158(3): 229-244.
Negaresh, K. and Rahiminejad, M. R. (2015) A taxonomic revision of Centaurea sect. Microlophus (Asteraceae, Cardueae–Centaureinae) and three new records for the flora of Iran. Nordic Journal of Botany 33(3): 335-353.
Negaresh, K. and Rahiminejad, M. R. (2016) Centaurea rahiminejadii sp. nov. and a new record in the genus Centaurea (Asteraceae, Cardueae- Centaureinae) from Iran. Nordic Journal of Botany 34(1): 15-22.
Negaresh, K. and Rahiminejad, M. R. (2018) A revision of Centaurea sect. Cynaroides (Asteraceae, Cardueae- Centaureinae). Phytotaxa 363(1): 1-131.
Negaresh, K. (2019) Centaurea khosraviana (Asteraceae, Cardueae), a new species from NW Iran. Annales Botanici Fennici 56(1-3): 115-122.
Post, G. E. (1896) Centaurea L. In: Flora of Syria, Palestine and Sinai (Ed. Post, G. E.) 462-471. Syrian Protestant College, Beirut.
Ranjbar, M. and Negaresh, K. (2013a) A revision of Centaurea sect. Phaeopappus (Asteraceae, Cardueae). Phytotaxa 23(1): 1-40.
Ranjbar, M. and Negaresh, K. (2013b) A contribution to Centaurea sect. Acrocentron (Asteraceae) from Iran. Phytotaxa 149(1): 50-60.
Ranjbar, M., Negaresh, K. and Karamian, R. (2013) Centaurea shahuensis and C. ravansarensis spp. nov. (Asteraceae, Cardueae) from West Iran. Nordic Journal of Botany 31(4): 430-436.
Ranjbar, M. and Negaresh, K. (2014) A revision of Centaurea sect. Centaurea (Asteraceae) from Iran. Turkish Journal of Botany 38: 969-987.
Susanna, A., Garcia-Jacas, N., Soltis, D. E. and Soltis, P. S. (1995) Phylogenetic relationships in tribe Cardueae (Asteraceae) based on ITS sequences. American Journal of Botany 82: 1056-1068.
Susanna, A. and Garcia-Jacas, N. (2007) Tribe Cardueae. In: The families and genera of vascular plants (Eds. Kadereit, J. W. and Jeffrey, C.) 8: 123-146. Springer Verlag, Berlin.
Susanna, A. and Garcia-Jacas, N. (2009) Cardueae (Carduoideae). In: Systematics, evolution, and eiogeography of compositae (Eds. Funk, V. A., Susanna, A., Stuessy, T. F. and Bayer, R. J.)
293-313. International Association for Plant Taxonomy, Vienna.
Thiers, B. (2019) Index Herbariorum: A Global Directory of Public Herbaria and Associated Staff. Retrieved from http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/ih/. On: 30 October 2019.
Turland, N. J., Wiersema, J. H., Barrie, F. R., Greuter, W., Hawksworth, D. L., Herendeen, P. S., Knapp, S., Kusber, W. -H., Li, D. -Z., Marhold, K., May, T. W., McNeill, J., Monro, A. M., Prado, J., Price, M. J. and Smith, G. F. (2018) International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Shenzhen Code). Regnum Vegetabile 159: 1-203.
Wagenitz, G. (1955) Pollenmorphologie und systematik in der gattung Centaurea L. s. l. Flora 142: 213-279.
Wagenitz, G. (1975) Centaurea L. In: Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands (Ed. Davis, P. H.) 5: 465-585. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
Wagenitz, G. (1980) Centaurea L. In: Flora Iranica (Ed. Rechinger, K. H.) 139b: 313-420. Akademische Druck-U Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
Wagenitz, G. (1983) Centaurea and Index Kewensis. Taxon 32: 107-109.
Wagenitz, G. and Esfandiari, E. (1983) Zwei neue Arten der Gattung Centaurea (Compositae) aus dem Iran. Willdenowia 13: 137-140.
Wagenitz, G. (1986) Centaurea in South-West Asia: patterns of distribution and diversity. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 89B: 11-21.
Wagenitz, G. and Hellwig, F. H. (1996) Evolution of characters and phylogeny of the Centaureinae. In: Compositae: Systematics (Eds. Hind, D. J. N. and Beentje, H. G.). In: Proceedings of the International Compositae Conference, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK.
Wagenitz, G. and Hellwig, F. H. (2000) The genus Psephellus Cass. (Compositae, Cardueae) revisited with a broadened concept. Willdenowia 30: 29-44.
Wagenitz, G. (2006) A revision of Centaurea (Compositae- Cardueae) in the flora of Iraq. Rostaniha 7, suppl. 2: 343-394.