بررسی تنوع صفت‌های رشدی، میزان اسانس و ویژگی‌های اکولوژیک گونه‌‌های مختلف بابونۀ رومی (Anthemis spp.) در استان کردستان (ایران)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد گیاهان دارویی، مرکز آموزش عالی شهید باکری میاندوآب، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

2 استادیار گروه گیاهان دارویی، مرکز آموزش عالی شهید باکری میاندوآب، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

چکیده

بابونۀ رومی (Anthemis spp.) 39 گونه گیاه علفی یک‌ساله و چندساله دارد که 15 گونۀ آن انحصاری ایران است. کشور ایران پراکنش خوبی از این گیاه دارویی دارد. در پژوهش حاضر برای نخستین‌بار، ویژگی‌های رشدی، درصد اسانس و بوم‌شناختی پنج گونۀ مختلف بابونه شامل بابونۀ زرد (A. tinctoria)، بابونۀ شفاف (A. hyalina)، بابونۀ آناتولی
(A. wiedemanniana)، بابونۀ شیرازی (A. pseudocotula) و بابونۀ زاگرسی و سوری (A. haussknechtii)با هدف شناخت بهتر ویژگی‌های گونه‌های بابونۀ رومی در استان کردستان ارزیابی شدند. گونه‌ها در زمان گل‌دهی گیاه جمع‌آوری و 13 صفت رشدی به همراه درصد اسانس گونه‌ها و ویژگی‌های اکولوژیک رویشگاه گونه بررسی شدند. نتایج نشان دادند بین گونه‌های مطالعه‌شده ازنظر ویژگی‌های رشدی و درصد اسانس تفاوت وجود دارد. گونۀ بابونۀ زرد و بابونۀ شفاف بیشترین مقادیر رشد و عملکرد را داشتند. درصد اسانس بین گونه‌ها از 02/0 تا 15/0 متغیر و بیشترین آن به بابونۀ شفاف (15/0 درصد) و سپس بابونۀ آناتولی (08/0 درصد) مربوط بود. تجزیه خوشه‌ای، گونه‌ها را در دو گروه مجزا قرار داد. طبق نتایج پژوهش حاضر، گونه بابونۀ شفاف (A. hyalina) به‌علت داشتن میزان رشد زیاد، اندام حاوی مادۀ مؤثره و درصد اسانس بیشتر برتری دارد و می‌تواند در صنایع دارویی، غذایی و عطرسازی وبه‌منظور معرفی به برنامه‌های اصلاحی استفاده شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of growth traits variation, essential oil percentage and ecological characteristics of different Anthemis sepecies in Kurdistan province (Iran)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zainab Rashidi 1
  • Roghayeh Najafzadeh 2
1 M.Sc Student of Medicinal Plants, Higher Education Center of Shahid Bakeri Miyandoab, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Medicinal Plants, Higher Education Center of Shahid Bakeri Miyandoab, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
چکیده [English]

Anthemis has 39 annual and perennial herbacius species that 15 species of them are from Iran. Iran has a good distribution of this medicinal plant. In this study, the growth characteristics, essential oil percentage and ecological features of five Anthemis species such as: (A. tinctoria), (A. hyalina),
(A. wiedemanniana), (A. pseudocotula) and (A. haussknechtii) were evaluated for the first time, in order to better understand the characteristics of them in Kurdistan province. The collection of species was carried out at flowering time and 14 growth traits along with ecological characteristics of the habitat were studied. The results showed that there is variation in growth characteritics and essential oil percentage among the studied species. A. tinctoria and A. hyaline had the highest growth and yield. Essential oil percentage was from 0.02 to 0.15%, most of which was related to A. hyaline (0.15%) and A. setacea (0.08%), respectivly. Cluster analysis divided the species into two groups. According to the results of this study, A. hyaline due to the high growth, organs with contains active ingredient, and high amount of essential oil is superior and can be used in pharmaceutical, food and perfumery industry and breeding programs. 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Anthemis
  • Iran Anthemis
  • Growth
  • Pharmaceutical industry
  • Breeding Programs
  • Iran
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