فلور، پراکنش جغرافیایی و گروه‌های کارکردی گیاهان در محدوده معدن مس سونگون استان آذربایجان شرقی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه مرتعداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ساری، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکتری علوم مرتع، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ساری، ایران

3 دانشیار بخش تحقیقات مرتع، موسسه تحقیقات جنگلها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

4 دانشیار گروه آبخیزداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ساری، ایران

5 کارشناس ارشد محیط زیست، مجتمع مس آذربایجان، شرکت ملی صنایع مس ایران

6 کارشناس ارشد آب و فاضلاب، بخش تحقیقات آب و محیط زیست، واحد تحقیق و توسعه، شرکت ملی صنایع مس ایران

7 رئیس بخش تحقیقات آب و محیط زیست، واحد تحقیق و توسعه، شرکت ملی صنایع مس ایران

چکیده

شناسایی فلور در محیط‌های معدن‌کاری به‌منظور حفظ تنوع زیستی و احیای پوشش گیاهی این مناطق ضروری است. در پژوهش حاضر، فلور و گروه‌های کارکردی گیاهان محدودۀ معدن مس سونگون، یکی از مهم‌ترین منابع مس ایران، در استان آذربایجان‌شرقی بررسی شد. پوشش گیاهی در محدودۀ فعالیت مجتمع مس سونگون شامل باطله‌های رهاشده، منطقۀ تحت‌تأثیر زه‌آب اسیدی معدن و مناطق شاهد بررسی شد. نتایج نشان دادند مناطق شاهد با تعداد 73 گونه متعلق به 21 تیره، بیشترین تعداد گونه و تیره‌های گیاهی را دارند و دو تیرۀ Poaceae (55/20 درصد) و Asteraceae (43/16 درصد) تیره‌های غالب گیاهی‌اند. در منطقۀ تحت‌تأثیر زه‌آب اسیدی معدن، Asteraceae (93/20 درصد) و Poaceae (55/20 درصد) بیشترین فراوانی را داشتند و در باطله‌های معدن Asteraceae (64/23 درصد) و Fabaceae (55/14 درصد) تیره‌های غالب گیاهی بودند. گونه‌های
Rhamnus cathartica، Fumaria bracteosa و Equisetum flviatile منحصراً در منطقۀ عبور زه‌آب اسیدی معدن و گونه‌های Chenopodium album، Atriplex tararica و Hyoscyamus arachnoideus منحصراً در باطله‌های معدن حضور داشتند. در مناطق شاهد نیز Carex stenophylla، Hypericum dogonbadanicum و Allium kotschyi گونه‌های انحصاری شناسایی شدند. همی‌کریپتوفیت بیشترین فراوانی را در هر سه منطقه داشت و باطله‌های معدن فانروفیت نداشتند. فلور منطقه به‌طور عمده متشکل از پهن‌برگان علفی و گونه‌های چندساله بود و عناصر رویشی ایرانی - تورانی بیشترین فراوانی را در هر سه منطقه داشتند. پتانسیلی از گونه‌های گیاهی به‌ویژه تثبیت‌کنندۀ نیتروژن در فلور منطقه وجود دارد که در احیای پوشش گیاهی این منطقه مفید است.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Floristic, Chorology and Functional Groups Study of Sungun Copper Mine in East Azarbaijan Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Jamshid Ghorbani 1
  • Arezo Alizadeh 2
  • Javad Motamedi 3
  • Ghorban Vahabzadeh 4
  • Nader Mazaheri 5
  • Reza Naseh 6
  • Esmat Esmailzadeh 7
1 Associate Professor, Department of Range Management, Faculty of Natural Resources, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University
2 Ph. D. Student in Rangeland Science, Department of Range Management, Faculty of Natural Resources, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University
3 Associate Professor, Rangeland Research Division, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
4 Associate Professor, Department of Watershed Management, Faculty of Natural Resources, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University
5 Master of Environmental Science, Azerbaijan Copper Complex, National Iranian Copper Industries Company
6 Master of Water and Wastewater Engineering, Water an Environment Research Branch, Research and Development Division, National Iranian Copper Industries Company
7 Administer of Water an Environment Research Branch, Research and Development Division, National Iranian Copper Industries Company
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Identification of the flora in mining area is necessary for biodiversity conservation as well as vegetation restoration. In this study, flora and functional groups of plants were evaluated in Sungun copper mine, East Azarbayjan province, one of the most important sources of copper in Iran. The vegetation was assessed in the mining area including mine wastes, the area that affected by acid mine drainage and outcrops. The results showed that the greatest number of species and plant families were found in outcrops with 73 species from 21 families. The most frequent plant families were Poaceae (20.55%) and Asteraceae (16.43%). In the area that was affected by acid, mine drainage Astraceae (20.93%) and Poaceae (20.55%) were dominant but in waste dumps the Asteraceae (23.64%) and Fabaceae (14.55%) were the main plant families. Some species were restricted to specific area such as Rhamnus cathartica, Fumaria bracteosa, Equisetum flviatile in acid drainage affected site, Chenopodium album, Atriplex tararica, Hyoscyamus arachnoideus in mine wastes. Carex stenophylla, Hypericum dogonbadanicum and Allium kotschyi were also found to be unique. It was also found that in all three sites the most dominant life forms were hemicryptophytes. There was not any species from phanerophyte in waste dumps. Forbs and perennials were the dominant species of the area and the most of the flora belonged to Iran-Turanian region. We found a potential of species particularly nitrogen fixing species in this area that could be beneficial for vegetation restoration.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Iran – Turanian
  • Vegetation
  • Growth Form
  • Life Form
  • Mining Activity

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