عنوان مقاله [English]
Identification of the flora in mining area is necessary for biodiversity conservation as well as vegetation restoration. In this study, flora and functional groups of plants were evaluated in Sungun copper mine, East Azarbayjan province, one of the most important sources of copper in Iran. The vegetation was assessed in the mining area including mine wastes, the area that affected by acid mine drainage and outcrops. The results showed that the greatest number of species and plant families were found in outcrops with 73 species from 21 families. The most frequent plant families were Poaceae (20.55%) and Asteraceae (16.43%). In the area that was affected by acid, mine drainage Astraceae (20.93%) and Poaceae (20.55%) were dominant but in waste dumps the Asteraceae (23.64%) and Fabaceae (14.55%) were the main plant families. Some species were restricted to specific area such as Rhamnus cathartica, Fumaria bracteosa, Equisetum flviatile in acid drainage affected site, Chenopodium album, Atriplex tararica, Hyoscyamus arachnoideus in mine wastes. Carex stenophylla, Hypericum dogonbadanicum and Allium kotschyi were also found to be unique. It was also found that in all three sites the most dominant life forms were hemicryptophytes. There was not any species from phanerophyte in waste dumps. Forbs and perennials were the dominant species of the area and the most of the flora belonged to Iran-Turanian region. We found a potential of species particularly nitrogen fixing species in this area that could be beneficial for vegetation restoration.
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