مطالعۀ ریخت‌شناسی قورباغۀ قفقازی (Rana macrocnemis, Boulenger, 1885) در ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه زیست‌شناسی، دانشکده علوم، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران

2 استادیار گروه زیست‌شناسی، دانشکده علوم، دانشگاه اراک، اراک، ایران

3 دانشیار گروه زیست‌شناسی، دانشکده علوم، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران

4 استاد گروه زیست‌شناسی، دانشکده علوم، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران

5 دانشیار گروه زیست‌شناسی، دانشکده علوم، دانشگاه حکیم سبزواری، سبزوار، ایران

چکیده

چکیده
گونۀ Rana macrocnemis در قفقاز و آسیای صغیر و در شمال‌غرب و غرب ایران پراکنش گسترده‌ای دارد. جمعیت‌های ایرانی قورباغه‌های قهوه‌ای با‌وجود پراکنش گسترده در ایران کمتر مورد‌توجه پژوهشگران قرار گرفته‌اند. در پژوهش حاضر با نمونه‌برداری گسترده‌ از کل محدودۀ پراکنش قورباغۀ کوهستانی در ایران به ارزیابی ساختار تغییرات جغرافیایی صفت‌ها در جمعیت‌ها پرداخته شد. به‌منظور مطالعه‌های ریخت‌شناسی، 13 صفت ریخت‌سنجی اندازشی از مجموع 85 نمونه بررسی شدند. اهمیت آماری وجود دوریختی جنسی بین جمعیت‌های قورباغۀ قفقازی به کمک آزمون آماری ANOVA و مقایسۀ تفاوت میانگین‌های هر صفت بین دو جنس نر و ماده و همچنین تجزیه واریانس چندمتغیره (MANOVA) با مقایسۀ میانگین‌های بردار صفت‌های دو جنس بررسی شد. الگوی ارتباطات فنتیکی بین جمعیت‌ها با آزمون‌های ANOVA یک‌طرفه، تحلیل مؤلفۀ اصلی (PCA)، تحلیل توابع ممیزی (DFA) و تجزیۀ خوشه‌بندی با الگوریتم UPGMA تعیین شد. نتایج آزمون آماری ANOVA در بررسی وجود دوریختی جنسی در گونۀ R. macrocnemis نشان دادند شش صفت بین دو جنس به‌طور معناداری با یکدیگر تفاوت دارند. آزمون MANOVA نیز به‌طور معناداری (P≤0.05) وجود دوریختی جنسی را در گونۀ
R. macrocnemis تأیید کرد. مطالعه‌های ریخت‌شناسی در سطح درون‌گونه‌ای وجود دست‌کم دو گروه اصلی برای قورباغه‌های کوهستانی را در مطالعه‌های ریخت‌شناسی تأیید کردند: گروه شمالی شامل جمعیت‌های تبریز و اردبیل و گروه جنوبی شامل جمعیت‌های لرستان، کرمانشاه، اراک، همدان، ارومیه، کردستان و اصفهان.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of the morphological variation in Caucasian brown frog (Rana macrocnemis, Boulenger, 1885) in Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Masoumeh Najibzadeh 1
  • Alireza Pesarakloo 2
  • Ahmad Gharzi 3
  • Nasrullah Rastegar-Pouyani 4
  • Eskandar Rastegar Pouyani 5
1 Assistant Professor Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
2 Assistant Professor Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Arak University, Arak, Iran
3 Associate Professor Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
4 Professor Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
5 Associate Professor Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Rana macrocnemis, the Caucasian brown frog, is found in northwest and west Iran. Despite their vast distribution range, the Iranian populations of the brown frogs, with the exception of a limited number, have not been considered in studies. In this study, we used a broad sampling of these frogs across their distribution range to assess their morphological variation and structure of populations. In order to investigate the morphological variation in Caucasian brown frog, 13 morphological characters in more than 85 specimens from various regions of Iran were studied. Statistical significance for a hypothesis of sexual dimorphism of the frogs was tested using ANOVA to compare difference of means of each character between sexes and applying a multivariate analysis of variances (MANOVA) to compare vectors of means of the two sexes. Patterns of phenetic relationships between local populations were investigated by One-way ANOVA, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) and clustering analyses with UPGMA algorithm. Results of ANOVA between sexes in R. macrocnemis showed statistical significance for six characters and Multivariate analysis of variances indicated difference between mean vectors of the males and females (P≤ 0.05). In the intraspecific level, based on morphometric characters, there are at least two main populations of R. macrocnemis in the northern Iran: a northern group (Tabriz, Ardebil) and a southern group (Lorestan, Kermanshah, Arak, Hamadan, Urmia, Kordestan and Esfahan).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ranidae
  • Rana
  • R. Macrocnemis
  • Morphological Variation
  • Population Structure
منابع

Afsar, M., Afsar, B. and Arikan, H. (2014) Rana macrocnemis BoUlenger, 1885, from the emir Mountains in western inner Anatolia (Turkey) (Anura: ranidae). Herpetozoa 26(3/4): 115-123.

Afsar, M., Afsar, B. and Arikan, H. (2015) Classification of the mountain frogs of the Berçelan Plateau (Hakkari), east Anatolia (Turkey) (Anura: Ranidae). Herpetozoa 28(1/2): 15-27.

AmphibiaWeb, Information on amphibian biology and conservation. Retrieved from: http://amphibiweb.org. On: 14 February 2017.

Ashton, K. G. and Feldman, C. R. (2003) Bergmann’s rule in nonavian reptiles: turtles follow it, lizards and snakes reverse it.Evolution 57: 1151-1163.

Baran, I. and Atatur, M. K. (1998) Turkish herpetofauna (amphibians and reptiles). Turkish Ministry of Environment, Ankara.

Boulenger, G. A. (1920) A monograph of the American frogs of the genus Rana. Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Science 55: 413-480.

Brown, R. and Guttman, S. (2002) Phylogenetic systematics of the Rana signata complex of Philippine and Bornean stream frogs: reconsideration of Huxley’s modification of Wallace’s Line at the Oriental- Australian faunal zone interface. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 76: 393-461.

Castellano, S., Giacoma, C. and Dujsebayeva, T. (2000) Morphometric and advertisement call geographic variation in polyploidy green toads. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 70: 341-360.

Dayrat, B. (2005) Towards integrative taxonomy. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 85(3): 407-415.

Dubois, A. (1985) Diagnose pre´liminaire d’un nouveau genre de Ranoidea (amphibiens, anoures) du sud de l’Inde. Alytes 4: 113-118.

Frost, D. R. (2013) Amphibian species of the world: an online reference. American museum of natural history, New York.

Gasc, J.-P., Cabela, A., Crnobrnja-Isailovic, J., Dolmen, D., Grossenbacher, K., Haffner, P., Lescure, J., Martens, H., Martiinez-Rica, J. P., Maurin, H., Oliveira, M. E., Sofianidou, T. S., Veith, M. and Zuiderwijk, A. (1997) Atlas of amphibians and reptiles in Europe. Societas Europaea Herpetologica and Museum national d Histoire naturelle, Paris.

Geraghty, P. T., Williamson, J. E., Macbeth, W. G., Wintner, S. P., Harry, A. V., Ovenden, J .R. and Gillings, M. R. (2013) Population Expansion and Genetic Structure in Carcharhinus brevipinna in the Southern Indo-Pacific. PLoS ONE 8(9): e75169.

Lee, J. C. (1993) Geographic variation in size and shape of Neotropical frogs: A precipitation gradient analysis. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas 163: 1-20.

Liao, W. B., Lu, X., Shen, Y. W. and Hu, J. C. (2011) Age structure and body size of two populations of the rice frog Rana limnocharis from different altitudes. Italian Journal of Zoology 78: 215-221.

Liao, W. B., Zeng, Y., Zhou, C. Q. and Jehle, R. (2013) Sexual size dimorphism in anurans fails to obey Rensch’s rule. Frontiers in Zoology doi:10.1186/1742-9994-10-10.

Lowe, K. and Hero, J. M. (2012) Sexual Dimorphism and Color Polymorphism in the Wallum Sedge Frog (Litoriaolongburensis). Herpetological Review 43: 236-240.

Mendelson, J. R III. (1998) Geographic variation in Bufo valliceps (Anura: Bufonidae), a widespread toad in the United States and middle America. Scientific Papers of the Natural History Museum. The University of Kansas8: 1-12.

Meshaka, W. E. (2001) The Cuban Tree frog in Florida: Life History of a Successful Colonizing Species. University Press of Florida, Florida.

Monnet, J. M. and Cherry, M. I. (2002) Sexual size dimorphism in anurans. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 269: 2301-2307.

Najibzadeh, M., Gharzi, A., Rastegar-Pouyani, N., Rastegar-Pouyani, E. and Pesarakloo, A. (2017a) Habitat Suitability for the Caucasian frog Rana macrocnemis Boulenger, 1885 (Amphibia: Anura: Ranidae). Russian Journal of Ecology 48(3): 250-256.

Najibzadeh, M., Gharzi, A., Rastegar-Pouyani, N., Rastegar-Pouyani, E. and Pesarakloo, A. (2017b) Habitat suitability and patterns of sex-biased migration of the Iranian long-legged wood frog, Rana pseudodalmatina (Anura: Ranidae). Biologia 72/6: 686-693.

Najibzadeh, M., Gharzi, A., Rastegar-Pouyani, N., Rastegar-Pouyani, E. and Pesarakloo, A. (2017c) Genetic Structure of the Hyrcanian wood frog, Rana pseudodalmatina (Amphibia: Ranidae) using mtDNA Gene Sequences. Russian Journal of Genetics 54(10) 1221-1228.

Najibzadeh, M., Veith, M., Gharzi, A., Rastegar-Pouyani, N., Rastegar-Pouyani, E., Kieren, S. and Pesarakloo, A. (2017d) Molecular phylogenetic relationships among Anatolian-Hyrcanian brown frog taxa (Ranidae: Rana). Amphibia-Reptilia 38: 339-350.

Palumbi, S .R. (1994) Genetic divergence, reproductive isolation, and marine speciation. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 25: 547-572.

Plötner, J., Becker, C. and Plötner, K. (1994) Morphometric and DNA investigations into European water frogs (Rana kl. esculentaSynklepton? (Anura, Ranidae)) from different population systems. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 32: 193-210.

Pope, L. C., Sharp, A. and Moritz, C. (1996) Population structure of the yellowfooted rock-wallaby Petrogale xanthopus (Gray, 1854) inferred from mtDNA sequences and microsatellite loci. Molecular Ecology 5: 629-640.

Riedel, A., Sagata, K., Suhardjono, Y. R., Tänzler, R. and Balke, M. (2013) Integrative taxonomy on the fast track- towards more sustainability in biodiversity research. Frontiers in Zoology 10(15): 1-9.

Rissler, L. J. and Apodaca, J. J. (2007) Adding more ecology into species delimitation: ecological niche models and phylogeography help define cryptic species in the black salamander (Aneides flavipunctatus). SystematicBiology 56: 924-942.

Shine, R. (1979) Sexual selection and sexual dimorphism in the Amphibia. Copeia1979: 297-305.

Sinsch, U. and Schneider, H. (1999) Taxonomic reassessment of Middle Eastern water frogs: Morphological variation among populations considered as Rana ridibunda, R. bedriagaeor, R. levantina. Journal of Zoological and Systematic Evolulation Resarch 37: 67-74.

Steeves, T. E., Anderson, D. J. and Friesen, V. L. (2005) A role for nonphysical barriers to gene flow in the diversification of a highly vagile seabird, the masked booby (Sula dactylatra). Molecular Ecology 14: 3877-3887.

Székely, T., Freckleton, R. B. and Reynolds, J. D. (2004) Sexual selection explains Rensch’s rule of size dimorphism in shorebirds. PNAS 101: 12224-12227.

Tarkhnishvili, D., Hille, A. and Bohme, W. (2001) Humid forest refugia, speciation and secondary introgression between evolutionary lineages: differentiation in a Near Eastern brown frog, Rana macrocnemis. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society74: 141-156.

Vargas-Salinas, F. (2006) Sexual size dimorphism in the Cuban tree frog Osteopilus septentrionalis. Amphibia-Reptilia 27: 419-426.

Veith, M., Kosuch, J. and Vences, M. (2003) Climatic oscillations triggered post-Messinian speciation of Western Palearctic brown frogs (Amphibia, Ranidae). Molecular Phylogenetic and Evolution 26: 310-327.

Wells, K. D. (2001) The energetics of calling in frogs. In: Anuran Communication (Ed. Ryan, M. J.) Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London.

Wiens, J. J., Parra-Olea, G., Garcia-Paris, M. and Wake, D. B. (2007) Phylogenetic history underlies elevational biodiversity patterns in tropical salamanders. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 274(1612): 919-928.

Young, K. A. (2005) Life-history variation and allometry for sexual size dimorphism in Pacific salmon and trout. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B272: 167-172.

Yuan, Z. Y., Zhou, W. W., Chen, X., Poyarkov, N. A. J. R., Chen, H. M., Jang-Liaw, Ni.-H., Chou, W. H., Matzke, N. J., Min, M. S. and Che, J. (2016) Spatiotemporal diversification of the true frogs (genus Rana): a historical framework for a widely studied group of model organisms. Systematic Biology 65(5): 824-842.

Zhang, X., Xiong, J. L., Lv, Y. Y., Zhang, L. and Sun, Y. Y. (2016) Sexual size and shape dimorphism in the Wushan salamander, Liuashihi (Liu, 1950) (Urodela: Hynobiidae).Italian Journal of Zoology 81: 368-373.