عنوان مقاله [English]
Daphne L. belongs to Thymelaeaceae family which has about 70 species in the world and 4 species in Iran. The species of this genus have compounds such as flavon, Betulin, Simarin and etc. that have anticancer, anti-flammation, antigout and antimicrobial effects. In this study, the pollen of 11 different accessions of D. mucronata, D. oleoides, D. pontica, D. mezerum were studied using stereo microscope, light microscope and scanning electron microscope for identifying and recognizing useful characteristic of these species. The results were analyzed utilizing NTSYS pc v 2.02 e software and dendrogram constructed using UPGMA method. The results have shown that pollen grains are spheroid to elliptic shape, tricolporat and polyforat in the studied species and there are differences on exine surface that create Crotonoid and Semicrotonoid patters. Characteristics such as shape and pollen grains diagonal, revealing and hiding of reticular muri exine diameter are effective in taxonomic segregation of species. In this study, three types of seed surface ornamentation from cell-like, mosaic, and wavy were observed and characteristics such as leaf shape and the presence and density of trichomes, perianth color, lobe form, presence of trichome in ovule,seed color, seed shape, having billed and seed ornamentation of surface are different (variable) between species.
Abdulrazaq, R. T. and Mohammed, S. M. S. (2015) Morphological and palynological systematic study of genus Daphne L. (Thymelaeceae) in Kurdistan-Iraq. Advances in Bioresearch 6(5): 83-88.
Akhiani, Kh. (1996) Flora of Iran. Vol. 15. Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands Press, Tehran (in Persian).
Bayer, C., Fay, M. F., De Bruijn, A. Y., Savolainen, V., Morton, C. M., Kubitzki, K., Alverson, W. S. and Chase, M. W. (1999) Support for an expanded family concept of Malvaceae within a recircumscribed order Malvales: a combined analysis of plastid atpB and rbcL DNA sequences. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 129(4): 267-303.
Bednorz, L., Krzymińska, A. and Czarna, A. (2011)Seed morphology and testa sculptures of some Allium species Alliaceae. Acta Agrobotanica 64(2): 33-38.
Beyers, J. B. P. and Marais, E. M. (1998) Palynological studies of the Thymelaeaceae of the cape flora. Grana 37(4): 193-202.
Coskuncelebi, K., Kandemir, A. and Beyazoglu, O. (2000)Scanning electron new species from Iran. Feddes Repertorium 120: 7-8.
Erdtman, G. (1986) Pollen Morphology and Plant Taxonomy: Angiosperms; an Introduction to palynology. Brill press, Netherlands.
Garg, A. and Rogers, Z. S. (2011) A Palynological Investigation of Daphne papyracea and Daphne bholuua (Thymelaeaceae) in India. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 5(2): 635-641.
Ghanati, F. (2005) Pollen biology, Qom Armous press, Qom (In Persian).
Halda, J. J. (1998) Some taxonomic problems in the genus Daphne L. Acta Musei Richnoviensis, Section Nature 5(1): 133-160.
Herber, E. B. (2002) Pollen morphology of the Thymelaeaceae in relation to its taxonomy. Plant Systematics and Evolution 232(1): 107-121.
Hedayati, M., Yazdanparast, R., Zarif Yeganeh, M., Hoghooghi Rad, L. and Azizi, F. (2011) A new diterpen extracted from Daphne mucronata , effects on human K 562 and CCRF-CEM cell lines. Journal of Cancer Therapy 2(1): 71-75.
Javidnia, K., Miri, R., Bahri Najafi, R. and Khadem Zadeh Jahromi, N. (2003) A preliminary study on the biological activity of Daphne Mucronata Royle. DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 11(1): 1-28.
Lindley, J. (1830) The genera and species of orchidaceous plants. Ridgways Press, London.
Ozcan, T. (2002) SEM observations on petals and fruits of some Turkish endemic Bupleurum L. (Umbelliferae) species. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 138: 441-449.
Rechinger, K. H. (1972) Correction to Thymelaeacea. In: Flora Iranica (Ed. Podlech, D.) vol. 158. Akademische Druck-U Verlagsanstalt Press, Graz.
Singh, G. (2004) Plant systematics: An integrated approach. Science Publishers, Enfield.