مطالعه فلوریستیک منطقه امن آق‌داغ در منطقه حفاظت شده مراکان: استان آذربایجان غربی، ایران

نویسندگان

گروه زیست‌شناسی گیاهی، دانشکده علوم زیستی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

منطقه امن آق‌داغ با 7/5184 هکتار در استان آذربایجان غربی یکی از سه منطقه امن منطقه حفاظت شده مراکان است. بر اساس ضریب آمبرژه آب و هوای این منطقه نیمه‌خشک سرد و بر اساس ضریب دومارتون نیمه‌خشک است. طی سال‌های 1387 تا 1388 از این منطقه 227 تاکسون (گونه، زیرگونه، واریته) متعلق به 47 تیره و 166 جنس شناسایی شد. از این بین، 205 تاکسون دولپه و 21 تاکسون تک‌لپه و یکی بازدانه هستند. تیره‌های Asteraceae (30 گونه)، Lamiaceae (26 گونه) و به دنبال آن تیره‌های Brassicaceae، Caryophylaceae و Fabaceae غنی‌ترین تیره‌ها هستند و متنوع‌ترین جنس‌ها Astragalus با 9 گونه و Gallium با 5 گونه هستند. این منطقه شامل 21 تاکسون بوم‌زاد ایران و 6 تاکسون نادر و 2 جنس مونوتیپیک است. همچنین، در پژوهش حاضر برای نخستین بار، 11 تاکسون از شمال‌غرب ایران و 29 تاکسون از آذربایجان غربی گزارش می‌شود. شکل زیستی اغلب گیاهان منطقه، تروفیت‌ها با 57/36 و همی‌کریپتوفیت‌ها با 75/27 درصد هستند. از نظر جغرافیای گیاهی، منطقه تحت تأثیر عناصر ایرانی-تورانی (53/31 درصد) و ایرانی-تورانی/ اروپا-سیبری (49/27 درصد) هستند. بالاترین کسر از گیاهان منطقه متعلق به عناصر دو، سه یا چند منطقه‌ای (01/59 درصد) هستند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Floristic study of AqDagh sanctuary in Marakan protected area: west Azarbaijan province, Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hanieh Nafisi
  • Farrokh Ghahremaninejad
Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

AqDagh sanctuary with the area 5184.7 hectares area is one of the three sanctuaries in the Marakan protected area, in west Azarbaijan province. It is located in the semi-dry to cold semi-dry climates. In this research, 227 taxa (species, subspecies and varieties) belonging to 47 families and 166 genera were identified during 2008 through 2009. Among the studied plants, 205 dicots and 21 monocots and one gymnosperm were recognized. Asteraceae (with 30 species) and Lamiaceae (with 26 species) were the largest families followed by Brassicaceae, Caryophylaceae and Fabaceae. Astragalus (with 9 species) and Gallium (with 5 species) were the most diverse genera. Twenty one endemic and 6 rare taxa plus 2 monotypic genera were identified in the studied area. In addition, 11 taxa from northwest of Iran and 29 from west Azarbaijan were reported for the first time. Therophytes (with 36.57%) comprised the most dominant life form, followed by hemicryptophytes (with 27.75%) in this area. From the chorological point of the view, most of the flora has been influenced by the IT (31.53%) and IT-ES (27.49%) elements. The highest proportion of vegetation in this area belonged to bi-tri or pluriregional elements (with 59.01%).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • West Azarbaijan
  • Aras
  • Flora
  • Chorology
  • Iran

 

Introduction

Determination of the flora of each region is a very important way to distinguish the aspects of the vital potential and varieties in the area in the specific period of time. For example the native, resistant, immigrant, invaded, medicinal plants and also new species to be determined and distinguished (Malekmohammadi et al., 2007). Moreover, with respect to the effects of many factors on the survival and elimination of some species the necessity of floristic studies to prevent from the destruction of habitats is justified. The knowledge of floristic composition is a prerequisite for other studies such as ecology, phytogeography, conservation management (Siadati et al., 2010), environment, forestry and agriculture (Malekmohammadi et al., 2007). Furthermore, by this way we can control the biodiversity, and implement ecosystem management for a long-term viability.

Iran has a total surface area of 1.65 × 106 km2 (Jafari and Akhani, 2008). It is rich in plant diversity except of the interior deserts and the lowlands along the Caspian Sea, Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman. Nearly half of Iran is composed of arid and semi-arid high mountains (Noroozi et al., 2007). The alpine areas of Iran have been poorly investigated ecologically and botanically. AqDagh in Marakan protected area in northwest of Iran is a mountainous area. So, the floristic study of this area and other studies in the east and west Azarbaijan provinces were necessary.

In this research, the floristic study of AqDagh sanctuary was carried out. The most important former floristic studies includes: Ghasemloo (Shohada) Valley Forest Reservoir (Malekmohammadi et al., 2006), Mirabad (Hassanzadeh Gorttapeh and Panahy, 2007), Arasbaran protected area (Assadi, 1987, 1988; Hamzeh’ee et al., 2010), Mishu-Dagh (Manafi and Bahreiny, 1997) and Marakan (Hassanzadeh Gorttapeh et al., 2008) in east and west Azarbaijan provinces. The aim of this study was to achieve the following results: 1- to produce a new list of plants; 2- to compare the previous plant list of Marakan protected area with that of this study and other previous studies.

 

Materials and Methods

Study area

Markan protected area with 103983 hectares is located in the east and west Azarbaijan provinces. It is limited to, Qotur River plateau in the south, agricultural fields of Qaraziadin in the west, Jolfa-Khoy road in the east and Aras boundary River from north (from this point, is very close to Republic of Azerbaijan). The altitude range of the area is 720-2100 m. The Aq Chay river in the middle of area is also the approximate boundary line of east and west Azarbaijan provinces) Department of Environment, 2004(. In Marakan, there are three sanctuaries consisting of Zarvin in the north slope, Munjughlu in the east and AqDagh in the west of the Aq Chay river (Figure 1).

 

 

Figure 1. Marakan protected area in Iran plane and satellite picture of sanctuaries. A. Zarvin; B. Munjughlu; C. AqDagh (1:75000)

 

AqDagh sanctuary is located in west Azarbaijan , northwest Iran (45° 09´ to 45° 16´E and 38° 51´ to 38° 56´N). This zone with 5184.7 hectares and altitude ranges between 984-1840 m, is situated in Gochash habitat) Department of Environment, 2004(. Most of this sanctuary is mountainous and the rest is low alluvial lands. The average precipitation is 360/9 mm/year and the annual average temperature is 12.76°C.

According to the statistical data of Qaraziadin station, the closest meteorological station to AqDagh, and Domarton and Emberger coefficient this zone possesses respectively semi-dry and semi-dry cold climate. It is resulted from Ombrotermic curve that five months in a year is dry and the humid season continues from November to May. The maximum average precipitation occurs in May (66.3 mm) and Maximum average temperature occurs in August (27.33 °C) (Figure 2).

 

 

 

Figure 2. Omberotermic curve of Qaraziadin meteorological station

 

Data collection

In this investigation, the plant specimens were collected every 15 days in moist months and every 20 days in dry months, during 2008-2009. For each specimen, digital photographs were taken and the longitude, latitude and altitude of plants habitats were recorded with GPS set.

Collected specimens were pressed and transferred to the Farabi Herbarium of Kharazmi University (FAR). Some references used in plant recognition included: Komarov (1963-2001), Rechinger (1963-2010), Davis (1965-1988), and Assadi et al. (1988-2011). According to these Flora, plant geographical distributions were determined, and then their chorotypes were determined based on Zohary (1973) and Leonard (1988). The life forms of specimens were recognized by Raunckier’s classification (Archibald, 1995). Monotypic genera and rare species were identified using “Biodiversity of plant species in Iran” (Ghahreman and Attar, 1999). Based on “Red data book of Iran” (Jalili and Jamzad, 1999) and Biodiversity of plant species in Iran, endemic taxa and red list of category (IUCN 2001) were determined (Table 1). Author names and scientific name of taxa were checked with IPNI (Macklin and Morris, 2007).

 

 

Table 1. List of taxa in Red List of IUCN. Lower risk (LR); Data deficient (DD); Vulnerable (VU)

Taxa

Rank

Taxa

Rank

Scorzonera mucida Rech.f., Aellen & Esfand.

LR

Astragalus latifolius Lam.

VU

Heliotropium dissitiflorum Boiss.

LR

Astragalus crispocarpus Nábělek

LR

Aethionema trinervium (DC.) Boiss.

LR

Astragalus glochidiatus Maassoumi

VU

Paronychia caespitosa Stapf

LR

Astragalus ebenoides Boiss. subsp. ebenoides

LR

Ajuga chamaecistus Ging. subsp. tomentella (Boiss.) Rech.f.

LR

Astragalus iranicus Bunge

DD

Gaillonia szovitsii DC.

DD

Medicago rigidula (L.) All.

LR

Stachys laxa Boiss. & Buhse

LR

Onobrychis subacaulis Boiss.

LR

Alcea glabrata Alef.

LR

Acantholimon bracteatum Boiss.

LR

 

Result and Discussion

Flora

In this survey from AqDagh sanctuary, 227 taxa of vascular plants consisting of 27 subspecies and 18 varieties and belonging to 47 families and 166 genera were recognized. Among these taxa, 21 taxa, 17 genera and 6 families belonged to monocotyledons, 205 taxa, 149 genera and 40 families belonged to dicotyledons and one taxon dedicated to gymnosperms. The biggest family of the region was Asteraceae with 30 taxa and 23 genera followed by Lamiaceae with 26 taxa and 18 genera, Brassicaceae with 16 taxa and 13 genera, Caryophylaceae and Fabaceae. Artemisia-Acantholimon was the phytosocioloical dominant type of Gochash habitat (Department of Environment, 2004).

In addition to the above families, there were 19 families with 1 taxa, 8 families with 2 taxa, 3 families with 3 taxa, 4 families with 4 taxa, and 13 families with more than 4 taxa (Table 2). Therefore, most of the families (72.34%) had less than 5 species frequency. Also, 25 families with 1 genus (53.19%), 6 families with 2 genera, 11 families with 3-9 genera and 5 families have 10-30 genera (Table 2); Astragalus with 9 species and Gallium with 5 species were the richest genera followed by Centaurea, Silene, Valerianella, Verbascum and Alyssum each with 4 species. High proportion of Astragalus in this area showed its adaptation to this mountainous area. Astragalus and Silene were the typical genera of IT phytogeographical region. 132 genera (79 %) with 1 species were also collected from the studies area.Based on Flora Iranica (Rechinger, 1963-2010), Flora of Iran (Assadi et al., 1988-2011) and floristic studies of east and west Azarbaijan provinces, 11 taxa from the northwest and 29 taxa from west Azarbaijan province were identified for the first time (Appendix 1). Sedum subulatum Boiss., Eryngium glomeratum Lam., Arabis gerardii Besser, Astragalus wagneri Bartle. ex Bunge, Astragalus glochidiatus Maassoumi, Galium spurium L. subsp. spurium were identified as rare species. Cymbolaena griffithii (A.Gray)Wagenitz, Drabopsis verna K.Koch belonged to monotypic genera, were identified in the studied area.

The flora of this region shared maximum number of common taxa (with 91 taxa) with Arasbaran protected area, but regarding number of dissimilar taxa, AqDagh showed maximum SØRENSON index comparing with Munjughlu, Marakan and Mishu-Dagh, respectively. According to this study, AqDagh sanctuary had 51 common species (22.46%), 83 genera (50%) and 34 families (72.34%) with Marakan (Hassanzadeh Gorttapeh et al., 2008). So based on this result some species and genera were added to Marakan flora. Considering AqDagh as a subset of Marakan, covering 5% of its area, more species diversity ofMarakan flora was expected. Ratios of taxa/genus and genus/family of the studied areas are given (Table 3). Indeed a complete list for the Marakan protected area has not been reported by the previous researchers (Hassanzadeh et al., 2008).

 

Table 2. List of rich families with more than 4 taxa in AqDagh sanctuary zone

Families

Genera

Taxa

Asteraceae

23

30

Lamiaceae

18

26

Brassicaceae

13

16

Caryophylaceae

8

14

Fabaceae

6

14

Poaceaee

10

12

Amaranthaceae

10

11

Scrophulariaceae

5

9

Rubiaceae

4

9

Boraginaceae

6

8

Apiaceae

6

7

Rosaceae

6

6

Papaveraceae

4

5

 

Table 3. Comparing floristic richness, taxonomic diversity and geographic characteristics of AqDagh and its adjacent studied areas

Studied area

Province

Area

(hectar)

Precipitatin

mm.year

Taxa

Genera

Marakan
(Hasanzadeh et al., 2008)

east & west
Azarbaijan

103986

281.1

282

167

Munjughlu
(Ghahremaninejad and Nafisi, 2011)

east
Azarbaijan

5270

242.88

236

166

Mishu-Dagh
(Manafi and Bahreiny, 1997)

east
Azarbaijan

-

736

390

232

Arasbaran
(Assadi, 1987-1988; Hamzeh’ee et al., 2010)

east
Azarbaijan

80654

316-686

1067

442

Ghasemloo Valley
(Malekmohammadi et al., 2006)

west
Azarbaijan

577

459.6

204

165

Mirabad
(Hassanzadeh Gorttapeh and Panahy, 2007)

west
Azarbaijan

11435

600

192

126

AqDagh
(The present study)

west
Azarbaijan

5184.7

360.9

227

166

 

 

 

 

 

 

Studied area

Province

Families

Taxa/

Genera

Genera/

Families

 

Marakan
(Hasanzadeh et al., 2008)

east & west
Azarbaijan

47

1.69

3.55

 

Munjughlu
(Ghahremaninejad and Nafisi, 2011)

east
Azarbaijan

38

1.42

4.36

 

Mishu-Dagh
(Manafi and Bahreiny, 1997)

east
Azarbaijan

60

1.68

3.86

 

Arasbaran
(Assadi, 1987-1988; Hamzeh’ee et al., 2010)

east
Azarbaijan

83

2.41

5.32

 

Ghasemloo Valley
(Malekmohammadi et al., 2006)

west
Azarbaijan

50

1.23

3.3

 

Mirabad
(Hassanzadeh Gorttapeh and Panahy, 2007)

west
Azarbaijan

41

1.52

3

 

AqDagh
(The present study)

west
Azarbaijan

47

1.37

3.53

 

 

The AqDagh sanctuary had 84 species (37%), 101 genera (60.47%) and 32 families (68%) in common with Munjughlu flora. Violaceae, Verbenaceae, Ulmaceae, Thymelaeaceae, Salicaceae, Rosaceae, Rhamnaceae, Lythraceae, Hypericaceae Ephedraceae, Convolvulaceae, Crassulaceae, Cistaceae and Capparidaceae families are present in AqDagh sanctuary but were absent in Munjughlu. In contrast, Cleomaceae, Juncaceae, Orobanchaceae, Solanaceae, Tamarixaceae, Xanthorrhoeaceae were present in Munjughlu and were absent in AqDagh region.

The Flora of AqDagh and Munjughlu had a total of 80 species, 110 genera and 36 families in common with Marakan flora. Based on this study, 59 genera and 12 families included: Violaceae, Verbenaceae, Santalaceae, Rhamnaceae, Primulaceae, Polygalaceae, Lythraceae, Ixioliriaceae, Dipsacaceae, Cistaceae and Capparidaceae, Asparagaceae are not found in study of Marakan by Hasanzadeh et al. (2008).

 

Life form

In the assessment of life form spectrum therophytes with 36.57% of flora were the most dominant, followed by hemicryptophytes (with 27.75%), chamaephytes (with 19.38%), cryptophytes (with 11.01%) and phanerophytes (with 5.29%) (Figure 3). The high presence of annual plants is the characteristic feature of this region, but with the increase in the altitude in mountainous parts hemicryptophytes became more abundant.

 

 

Figure 3. The pie chart of life form of AqDagh species

 

Life forms of plants indicated the possibility of its adaptation to environmental factors especially climatic condition. According to Mobayen (1980-1996), the frequency of therophytes was due to Mediterraniean climate and the frequency of hemicryptophytes was due to cold and temperate climate. High percentage of therophyte indicated the fact that this area had low rainfall. Dominance of therophyte and hemicryptophyte indicated the adaptation of these plants to arid and cold area. The low percentage of Cryptophyte and Phanerophyte showed that they were not adapted to existing climate and edaphical situations. In addition, based on our statististic data, this rank of frequency fitted in semi-dry and semi-dry cold condition. Therophytes adapted to drought and shortage of rainfall, because they spend their vegetative period in the form of seed and hemicryptophyte use different ways such as: reserving water, using ground water, reducing their water need by losing their leaves and reduction of vegetative growth to overcome difficult environmental conditions (Asri, 2003).

Comparing life forms of the studied area with other regions Assadi (1987, 1988), Manafi and Bahreiny (1997), Malekmohammadi et al. (2006), Hassanzadeh Gorttapeh and Panahy (2007), Hasanzadeh et al. (2008), and Ghahremaninejad and Nafisi (2011), maximum resemblance between AqDagh and Munjughlu followed by Marakan and Ghasemloo valley (Table 4) is revealed. In this table, Arasbaran data are from (Hamzeh’ee et al., 2010).

 

Table 4. plant life form spectrums in studied area in east and west Azarbaijan provinces

Marakan

Th: 31.91%

He: 26.95%

Ch: 16.31%

Ph: 15.06%

Cr: 9.26%

Munjughlu

Th: 40%

He: 31.92%

Ch: 15.32%

Cr: 10.21%

Ph: 1.7%

AqDagh

Th: 36.72%

He: 27.87%

Ch: 19.02%

Cr: 11.06%

Ph: 5.30%

Mishu-Dagh

He: 42.1%

Cr: 19.55%

Th: 19.24%

Ch: 14.24%

Ph: 5.3%

Arasbaran

He: 42.5%

Th: 25.8%

Cr: 18.8%

Ph: 8.1%

Ch: 4.8%

Ghasemloo valley

Th: 30.9%

He: 29.9%

Ph: 16.7%

Ch: 12.25%

Cr: 10.3%

Mirabad

He: 30.2%

Th: 28.1%

Cr: 22%

Ph: 17.7%

Ch: 12.5%

 

Chorology

This area is situated at junction of 2 important phytogeographic regions namely Irano-Turanian and Euro-Siberian. The vegetation of the area has been influenced by the elements of four phytogeographical regions, including Irano-Turanian, Euro-Siberian, Mediterranian, Saharo-Sindian, therefore as it is supposed rather high proportions of bi-tri or pluriregional elements occur in the area. The results showed that 59.01 % of the flora in this area belonged to bi-tri or pluriregional elements. This showed overlap of some phytogeographic areas in this region. Irano-Turanian elements (31.53%), Irano-Turanian and Euro-Siberian (27.49%), Pluriregional (13.06%), Irano-Turanian, Mediterranian and Euro-Siberian (7.66%), Irano-Turanian and Mediterranian (4.95%), Irano-Turanian, Mediterranian and Saharo-Sindian (2.25%), Irano-Turanian and Saharo-Sindian (1.8%), Irano-Turanian, Euro-Siberian and Saharo-Sindian (0.9%), Cosmopolitan (0.9%) and endemic (9.46%) were the most important Phytogeographic elements of the studied area (Figure 4). The phytochoria of the studied area that are compared with other regions (Table 5), showed the presence of similar Phytogeographical elements in AqDagh and Munjughlu and Arasbaran area. In addition, IT and IT-ES were the dominant chorotypes in all areas except in Arasbaran region.

 

 

Figure 4. The column chart of percentage of phytocorya in AqDagh

 

 

Table 5. Comparison of chorotypes in studied area in east and west Azarbaijan provinces

Marakan

IT: 65.25%

Bi- tri- or plural: 24.13%

ES: 5.31%

End: 4.25%

M: 1.06%

Munjughlu

Bi- tri- or plural: 58.51%

IT: 34.06%

End: 6.12%

ES: 1.31%

 

AqDagh

Bi- tri- or plural: 59.01%

IT: 31.53%

End: 9.46%

 

 

Arasbaran

Bi- tri- or plural: 45.6%

ES: 26.6%

IT: 23.2%

M: 4.6%

 

Ghasemloo valley

IT: 61.28%

Bi- tri- or plural: 22.55%

ES: 8.33%

End: 6.86%

M: 0.98%

Mirabad

IT: 62.5%

Bi- tri- or plural: 25.52%

ES: 6.78%

End: 4.68%

M: 0.52%

 

Endemism

Among 227 taxa distributed in the studied area, 14 species, 4 variety and 3 subspecies were endemic. The endemic taxa in this area were: Aethionema trinervium Boiss. var. apterocarpum (Rech.f. & Aellen) Hedge, Alyssum inflatum Nyàr., Dianthus orientalis Donn var. obtusisquameus (Boiss.) Rech.f., Minuartia lineata (Boiss.) Bornm., Paronychia caespitosa Stapf, Astragalus ebenoides Boiss. subsp. ebenoides, Astragalus glochidiatus Maassoumi, Astragalus rhodosemius Boiss. & Hausskn., Astragalus vegetus Bunge, Astragalus wagneri Bartle. ex Bunge, Ajuga chamaecistus Ging ex Benth. subsp. tomentella (Boiss.) Rech.f., Phlomis olivieri Benth., Stachys laxa Boiss. & Buhse, Allium subakaka Razyfard & Zarre, Alcea flavovirens (Boiss. & Buhse) Iljin var. flavovirens, Alcea glabrata Alef. var. glabrata, Achantholimon bracteatum Boiss., Rhamnus pallasii Fisch. & C.A.Mey., Crucianella gilanica Trin. subsp. glauca (A.Rich. ex DC.) Ehrend., Scorzonera mucida Rech.f., Aellen & Esfand., Heliotropium dissitiflorum Boiss. Endemic taxa comprised 8.84% of total taxa in this area. About 6916 plant species were present in Iran out of which 1810 were endemic species (26%) (Ghahreman and Attar, 1999), this area consisted of 1.1% of Iran endemic species. Endemism frequency in families is in (Figure 5). The reason for reduction of endemism and biodiversity in this sanctuary could be due to maximum grazing that would lead to biodiversity losses and distribution of rural species. Astragalus brachyodontus Boiss., Astragalus ebenoides Boiss. subsp. ebenoides, Astragalus vegetus Bunge., Astragalus wagneri Bartle. ex Bunge., Artemisia spicigera K.Koch., Echinops haussknechtii Boiss., Tragopogon caricifolius Boiss., Dianthus orientalis Donn var. obtusisquameus (Boiss.) Rech,f, Paronychia caespitosa Stapf, Phlomis olivieri Benth., Sameraria nummularia Bornm., Heliotropium esfandiarii Akhani & H.Riedl, Alcea flavovirens (Boiss. & Buhse) Iljin var. flavovirens, Acantholimon gilliatii Turril., Malabaila kotschyi Boiss. were the endemic taxa in Munjughlu sanctuary that among these seven endemic taxa were common.

 

 

Figure 5. The column chart of endemic taxon number in families

 

 

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to express their thanks and appreciation to the Department of Environment of Urmia and Khoy for their helps in collecting data with presenting maps and general management project data. This research is a part of a scientific project performed by the second author and authorized by the Department of Environment of Iran, for which the second author is grateful.

 

Appendix 1. Floristic list of AqDagh sanctuary zone in Marakan protected area and herbarium numbers. The first reported taxa from northwest of Iran have been shown with three stars and from west Azarbaijan with one star.

Gymnosperms

Ephedraceae: Ephedra major Host. (10672).

 

Angiosperms

Monocots

Amaryllidaceae:***Allium subakaka Razyfard & Zarre(10480),Allium syntamanthum K.Koch (10399)

Asparagaceae: Ornithogalum brachystachys K.Koch(10449),Muscari caucasicum (Griseb). Baker (10476, 10477), Muscari neglectum Guss. ex Ten. (10297).

Iridaceae: Iris iberica Hoffm. subsp. lycotis (Woron) Takth. (10499, 10301).

Ixioliriaceae: Ixiolirion tataricum (Pall.) Herb. subsp. montana (10458).

Liliaceae: Tulipa humilis Herb. (10241),***Tulipa lehmanniana Mercklin (10308).

Poaceae: Aegilops triuncialis L. (10412), Agropyron pectiniforme Roem. & Schultes (10442), Boissiera squarrosa (Sol.) Nevski (10662, 10434),***Bromus gracilimus Bunge (10430), ***Bromus madritensis L. var. madritensis (10519, 10661), Bromus tectorum L. var. hirsutus Regel (10405, 10402), Eremopoa persica (Trin.) Roshev. (10438), Eremopyrum distans (K.Koch) Nevsk. (10404), Melica jacquemontii Decne. subsp. jacquemontii (10510, 10441), Poa bulbosa L. (10202, 10294), Stipa barbata Desf. (10415, 10420), Taeniatherum crinitum (Schreb.) Nevski (10408).

 

Dicots

Amaranthaceae: *Amaranthus albus L. (10814), Amaranthus retroflexus L. (10811), Atriplex tatarica L. (10810), Caroxylon ericoides (M.Bieb.) Akhani & E.H.Roalson (10788), Ceratocarpus arenarius L. (10409), Halanthium rarifolium K.Koch (10207), Krascheninnikovia ceratoides (L.) Gueldenst. var. ceratoides (10669,10670), Noaea mucronata Asch. & Schweinf. subsp. mucronata (10820), Salsola tragus L. (10214), Seidlitzia florida (M.Bieb.) Bunge ex Boiss. (10220, 10212, 10213), Suaeda altissima Pall. (10794).

Apiaceae: Astrodaucus orientalis Drude (10817, 10437), Daucus carota L. subsp. carota (10781,10782, 10783),*Eryngium bungei Boiss. (10847), Eryngium glomeratum Lam. (10846), Prangos uloptera DC. (10468), Scandix aucheri Boiss. (10413, 10232, 10266), Zosimia absintifolia (Vent.) Link (10504).

Asteraceae: Artemisia scoparia Waldst. & Kit. (10805), Carduus pycnocephalus L. subsp. pycnocephalus (10315), Carthamus lanatus L. (10801), Centaurea phaeopappa(DC.) Sch.Bip.(10703), Centaurea pseudoscabiosa Boiss. & Buhse subsp. pseudoscabiosa (10691), Centaurea solstitialis L. subsp. solstitialis (10800), Centaurea virgata Lam. subsp. squarrosa (Willd.) Gugler(10808, 10463), Cichorium intybus L. (10772), Cirsium congestum Fisch. & C.A.Mey. (10714), Cousinia macroptera C.A.Mey.ex DC. (10417, 10455),Cymbolaena griffithii (A.Gray) Wagenitz (10411), Echinops orientalis Trautv (10802), Filago arvensis L. (10410), Helichrysum armenium DC. (10694), Jurinea pulchella DC. (10768), Lactuca serriola L. (10775), Onopordum leptolepis DC. (10813), Pulicaria dysenterica (L.) Bernh. (10780),*Scorzonera mucida Rech.f., Aellen & Esfand. (10265), Scorzonera ramosissima DC. (10479), Senecio vernalis Waldst. & Kit. (10236, 10290), Klasea coriacea (DC.) Holub (10798), Tanacetum canescens DC. (10664), Tanacetum polycephalum Sch. Bip. (10440), Tanacetum uniflorum Sch. Bip. (10459, 10683, 10684), Taraxacum sp. (10774, 10803), Tragopogon coloratus C.A.Mey. (10506), Tragopogon graminifolius DC. (10497), Xanthium brasilicum Vell. (10818), Xeranthemum squarrosum Boiss. (10700).

Berberidaceae: Berberis integerrima Bunge (10823), Leontice armeniaca Boiv. (10488, 10240).

Boraginaceae: ***Buglossoides tenuiflora (L.f.) I.M.Johnst. (10298, 10296), *Heliotropium circinatum Griseb. (10806, 10807), Heliotropium dissitiflorum Boiss. (10699), Heliotropium szowitsii Stscheg. (10698), Lappula microcarpa Gürke (10491, 10464, 10677, 10452), Nonea pulla DC. (10300), Onosma microcarpa DC. (10671, 10453), Paracaryum strictum Boiss. (10692).

Brassicaceae: *Aethionema trinervium Boiss. var. apterocarpum (Rech.f. & Aellen) Hedge (10469,10304), Alyssum inflatum Nyàr. (10288, 10291), Alyssum linifolium Steph. ex Willd. var. linifolium (10274), Alyssum minus (L.) Rothm. (10204), *Alyssum muellerii Boiss. & Buhse(10709), Arabidopsis pumila Busch (10269), *Arabis gerardii Besser (10281),*Clypeola dichotoma Boiss. (10419), Conringia orientalis (L.) Andrz. (10234), *Drabopsis verna K.Koch (10233, 10203), Goldbachia laevigata DC.(10280), Isatis cappadocica Desv. subsp. cappadocica (10707), Sameraria stylophora Boiss. (10505), Sterigmostemum incanum M.Bieb. (10299), Thlaspi perfoliatum L. (10235), Torularia torulosa O.E.Schulz (10271).

Capparidaceae: Capparis spinosa L. (10769, 10770, 10804).

Caryophyllaceae: Arenaria holostea M.Bieb. subsp. macrantha (Schischk.) McNeill (10494), Cerastium inflatum Link ex Sweet (10500),*Dianthus orientalis Donn var. obtusisquameus (Boiss.) Rech.f (10773), Holosteum glutinosum (M.Bieb.) Fisch. & C.A.Mey. (10278), Holosteum marginatum C.A.Mey. (10310), Minuartia hamata (Hausskn.) Mattf. (10422), *Minuartia lineata (Boiss.) Bornm. (10474), Minuartia meyeri Bornm. (10706, 10427),*Paronychia caespitosa Stapf (10418), Silene chlorifolia Sm. (10686), Silene commelinifolia Boiss. var. commelinifolia (10682), Silene spergulifolia M.Bieb. (10503), Silene stenobotrys Boiss. & Hausskn. (10472), Velezia rigida L. (10416).

Cistaceae: Helianthemum ledifolium Mill. var. microcarpum Willk. (10799).

Crassulaceae: Rosularia sempervivum A. Bergervar. sempervivum (10509),*Sedum subulatum Boiss. (10679, 10680), Sedum album L. (10681).

Convolvulaceae: Convolvulus lineatus L. (10667), Cuscuta brevistyla A.Braun ex A.Rich. (10668).

Dipsacaceae: Scabiosa micrantha Desf. (10502).

Ephorbiaceae: ***Euphorbia denticulata Lam. (10262, 10263), Euphorbia sp. (10400), Euphorbia sp. (10701, 10778).

Fabaceae: *Astragalus crispocarpus Nábělek (10487), Astragalus ebenoides Boiss. subsp. ebenoides (10483),*Astragalus glochidiatus Maassoumi (10689),*Astragalus iranicus Bunge(10279, 10841), Astragalus latifolius Lam. (10295), Astragalus macropelmatus Bunge subsp. macropelmatus (10351, 10305), Astragalus rhodosemius Boiss. & Hausskn. (10690), Astragalus vegetus Bunge (10314, 10350), Astragalus wagneri Bartle. exBunge (10277),*Caragana grandiflora DC. (10303), Medicago rigidula (L.) All. var. rigidula (10428), Onobrychis cornuta (L.) Desv. subsp. cornuta (10498,10293), Onobrychis subacaulis Boiss. (10317), Vicia cappadocica Boiss. (10287).

Geraniaceae: Biebersteinia multifida DC. (10311),*Erodium neuradifolium Delile ex Godron (10283, 10485),***Erodium oxyrrhynchum M.Bieb. subsp. bryoniifolium Boiss.) Schönb.-Tem. (10423), Geranium tuberosum L. (10484, 10312).

Hypericaceae: Hypericum scabrum L. (10712, 10478), Hypericum helianthemoides (Spach) Boiss. (10771).

Lamiaceae: Acinos graveolens Link (10489),*Ajuga chamaecistus Ging ex Benth.subsp. tomentella (Boiss.) Rech.f. (10496),***Dracocephalum thymiflorum L. (10456, 10358, 10273), Eremostachys macrophylla Montbr. & Auch. (10439), Eremostachys laciniata Bunge (10462), Hymenocrater bituminosus Fisch. & C.A.Mey. (10481, 10466), Lallemantia iberica Fisch. & C.A.Mey. (10363, 10486), Lamium amplexicaule L. var. amplexicaule (10284), Marrubium parviflorum Fisch. & C.A.Mey. (10713, 10676), Mentha longifolia L. (10779, 10793),*Nepeta fissa C.A.Mey. (10695), Nepeta involucrata Bornm. (10495, 10508), Phlomis olivieri Benth. (10659),*Salvia chloroleuca Rech.f. & Aellen (10531), Salvia pachystachya Trautv. (10454, 10457), Scutellaria pinnatifida A.Ham. subsp. alpina (Bornm.) Rech.f. (10448), Scutellaria platystegia Juz. (10470), Scutellaria sp. (10289), Sideritis montana L. (10401, 10447), Stachys inflata Benth. (10433, 10444), Stachys schtschegleevii Sosn. ex Grossh (10264, 10275),***Stachys laxa Boiss.& Buhse (10660), Teucrium polium L. (10797, 10663, 10432, 10443), Thymus sp. (10446, 10461, 10445), Ziziphora capitata L. subsp. orientalis Samuelsson ex Rech.f. (10460), Ziziphora tenuior L. (10403).

Linaceae: *Linum mucrunatum Betrol. var. mucrunatum (10666).

Lythraceae: Lythrum salicaria L. (10786).

Malvaceae: *Abutilon theophrasti Medik. (10208), Alcea flavovirens (Boiss. & Buhse)var. flavovirens (10719, 10753), *Alcea glabrata Alef. var. glabrata (10796, 10812, 10205), Hibiscus trionum L. (10819).

Papaveraceae: Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Rudolphsubsp. corniculatum (10431), Hypecoum pendulum L. (10282), *Papaver argemone L. (10493), Papaver macrostomum Boiss. & A.Huet (10492), Roemeria hybrida (L.) DC. subsp. dodecandra (Forssk.) Maire     (10270).

Plantaginaceae: Plantago lanceolata L. (10473).

Plumbaginaceae: Acantholimon bracteatum Boiss. (10482), Plumbago europaea L. (10815).

Polygalaceae: Polygala hohenackeriana Fisch. & C.A.Mey. (10285).

Polygonaceae: Atraphaxis spinosa L. (10696).

Primulaceae: Androsace maxima L. (10309, 10426).

Ranunculaceae: Adonis aestivalis L. (10267), Ceratocephala falcata (L.) Pers. (10268), Consolida regalis Gray subsp. divaricata (Ledeb.) Munz (10704, 10703, 10702), Thalictrum isopyroides C.A.Mey. (10313).

Resedaceae: Reseda lutea L. (10471, 10688), *Reseda microcarpa Müll.Arg. (10435).

Rhamnaceae: Rhamnus pallasii Fisch. & C.A.Mey. (10407, 10429, 10784, 10490).

Rosaceae: Amygdalus communis L. (10276), Cerasus pseudoprostrata Pojark. (10705, 10306), Cotoneaster nummularioides Pojark. (10824), Crataegus meyeri Pojark. (10790, 10825), Rosa canina L. (10792, 10795, 10822), Sanguisorba minor Scop. subsp. lasiocarpa (Boiss. & Hausskn.) Nordborg(10787, 10789).

Rubiaceae: Callipeltis cucullaria (L.) DC. (10406),***Crucianella gilanica Trin. subsp. glauca (A.Rich. ex DC.) Ehrend. (10673), Crucianella gilanica Trin. subsp. trancaspica (10674),*Gaillonia szowitzii DC. (10665), Galium humifusum M.Bieb. (10675),***Galium nupercreatum Popov (10777), Galium spurium L. subsp. spurium (10450), Galium verticillatum Danthoine ex Lam. (10414), Galium verum L. subsp. verum f. verum (10678, 10451).

Salicaceae:*Salix excelsa S.G.Gmelin. (10791).

Santalaceae:*Thesium kotschyanum Boiss. (10710, 10467).

Scrophulariaceae: Bungea trifida C.A.Mey. (10711), Linaria simplex DC. (10507), Scrophularia azerbijanica Grau. (10475),*Verbascum orientale L.All. (10687), Verbascum speciosum Schrad. (10697, 10767), Verbascum suworowianum K.Koch var. suworowianum (10424), Verbascum suworowianum K.Koch var. acuminatum (Murb.) Hub.-Mor. (10425), Veronica microcarpa Boiss. (10292), Veronica persica Poir (10501).

Thymeleaceae: Diarthron vesiculosum Endl. (10693).

Ulmaceae: Celtis glabrata Steven ex Planch. (10816, 10685).

Valerianaceae: Valerianella oxyrhyncha Fisch. & C.A.Mey. (10421), Valerianella coronata (L.) DC. (10465), Valerianella cymbaecarpa C.A.Mey. (10307), Valerianella plagiostephana Fisch. & C.A.Mey. (10708).

Verbenaceae: Verbena officinalis L. (10785).

Violaceae: Viola occulta Lehm. (10316, 10286).

Zygophyllaceae: Peganum harmala L. var. harmala (10398), Zygophyllum atriplicoides Fisch. & C.A.Mey. var. atriplicoides (10436).

 

 

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