تنوع زیستی گیاهی پنج مانداب مهم شهرستان بابل، استان مازندران

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم گیاهی، دانشکده علوم، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران

2 گروه زیست‌شناسی، دانشکده علوم پایه، دانشگاه مازندران، بابلسر، ایران

چکیده

این پژوهش، شامل مطالعه فلور و بررسی تنوع زیستی پنج مانداب مهم مرزون آباد، لنگور، بصراء، رمنت و آغوزبن در شهرستان بابل در شمال ایران است. برای تحقق مطالعات فلوریستیکی در این مانداب‌ها، همه گیاهان آوندی در طی دو فصل رویشی (1389-1390) جمع‌آوری گردید. تعداد کل 196 گونه متعلق به 138 جنس و 58 خانواده گیاهی شناسایی شد. تیره‌های Poaceae (24 گونه)، Cyperaceae (19 گونه)، Asteraceae (16 گونه)، Fabaceae (13 گونه) و Polygonaceae (9 گونه) دارای بیشترین غنای گونه در منطقه مورد مطالعه بودند. جنس‌هایی که بیشترین تعداد گونه را در بردارند عبارتند از: Cyperus (8 گونه)، Polygonum (7 گونه) و Potamogeton (4 گونه). در بین گیاهان منطقه، تروفیت‌ها با 37 درصد فراوان‌ترین شکل زیستی منطقه را تشکیل می‌دهند. از لحاظ پراکنش جغرافیایی، بیشترین گونه‌ها متعلق به عناصر چند ناحیه‌ای با 5/54 درصد هستند. زیستگاه‌های مختلف این مانداب‌ها ارزیابی شد. از میان پنج مانداب شهرستان بابل، مانداب مرزون‌آباد بیشترین تعداد گونه‌ها (111) را به خود اختصاص داده است و مانداب لنگور با 63 گونه در رتبه دوم قرار دارد. به علاوه، مقایسه‌ای بین اطلاعات به دست آمده از این مانداب‌ها با سایر مانداب‌های شمال ایران نیز انجام گردید که نشان‌دهنده برخی شباهت‌ها و اختلافات بین مناطق مختلف مورد بررسی است. طبق ضریب تشابه سورنسون مشخص شد که شباهت اندکی بین گونه‌های گیاهی این پنج مانداب با یکدیگر وجود دارد که دلیل آن مساحت متفاوت و فاصله نسبتاً زیاد میان آنهاست.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Plant diversity of five important wetlands of Babol Mazandaran province, Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Farrokh Ghahremaninejad 1
  • Alireza Naqinezhad 2
  • Vahid Amirgholipour Kasmani 1
1 Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Biology, Faculty of Basic Sciences, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran
چکیده [English]

This study deals with the flora of five important wetlands namely Marzoonabad, Langoor, Bosra, Ramenet and Aghoozbon and their surroundings in Babol, Mazandaran province. In order to carry out a floristic survey in these wetlands, all vascular plants were collected during two growing seasons (2010-2011). We encountered 196 species belonging to 138 genera and 58 families. The largest families in the studied area were Poaceae with 24 species, Cyperaceae with 19 species, Asteraceae with 16 species, Fabaceae with 13 species and Polygonaceae with 9 species, respectively. Genera represented by the greatest number of species were Cyperus (8), Polygonum (7) and Potamogeton (4). Classification based on life form indicated that the therophytes (37%) comprised the largest proportion of the plants in the studied area. From chorological point of view, the largest proportion of the flora belonged to the pluriregional elements (54.5%). Various habitats of the wetland are discussed. Among the five wetlands of Babol, Marzoonabad had the highest number of species (111) and Langoor with 63 species placed on second. Moreover, a comparison between the data collected here and other northern Iranian wetlands has been provided which indicated some similarities and dissimilarities between different studied wetlands. According to Sørensen’s (1948) similarity index, there are less similarities between the species of the five wetlands of Babol because they have different surface area and there is no relation between them.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Aquatic plants
  • Babol wetlands
  • Chorology
  • Flora
  • Life Form
  • Mazandaran

Introduction

Wetlands are valuable ecosystems which provide abundant services and materials with economic value, not only to the adjacent local populations but also to regional communities, providing valuable services such as water quality improvement, flood mitigation, erosion control and recreational enrichment (Mitsch and Gosselink, 2000). Destroying wetlands by means of drainage and pollution, which have derived from wastewater of agriculture and industries are substantial problems for the world wetlands. The occurrence of exotic species such as Azolla filliculoides on the water surface of wetlands is the major concern in these aquatic ecosystems in the north part of Iran. The wetlands of Babol namely Marzoonabad, Langoor, Bosra, Ramenet and Aghoozbon are important ecosystem in the north of Iran. Studying these wetlands is very important because they serve as a very valuable resting, nesting and wintering places for a wide variety of waterfowls. These wetlands also play the critical role in restoring water, which is required for cultivating activities in summer. Because of variety in the climatic conditions, there are rather remarkable and unique wetlands with exclusive characteristic in different parts of Iran. Some floristic and ecological studies have been conducted on these vaulable ecosystems e.g. Hashilan wetland (Karami et al., 2001) in the west and Parishan wetland (Dolatkhahi et al., 2010) in the south of Iran. Nevertheless, many floristic and vegetation studies of the wetland habitats in Iran were concentrated along the southern Caspian shore, i.e. Amirkelayeh lagoon and coasts of Lahijan-Langerud (Asri and Moradi, 2004; Ghahreman et al., 2004), Anzali lagoon (Ghahreman and Attar, 2003; Asri and Eftekhari, 2002), Miankaleh wildlife refuge (Sharifnia et al., 2007; Ejtehadi et al., 2003; Asri et al., 2007), Boujagh National Park (Naqinezhad et al., 2006) , Estil wetland (Khodadadi et al., 2009, Solukli wetland in Golestan national Park (Akhani, 1998), Gomishan lagoon (Karimi, 2010). The aims of the study were to present: (1) a checklist of all vascular plants found in these five wetlands, (2) spectrum of life form and phytogeographical data across the whole wetlands together with detailed information about the habitats, life form and chorology for each species, (3) a comparison between the results of Babol wetlands and other wetlands and (4) a solution for protecting these wetlands from serious destruction.

 

Materials and Methods

Study area

The wetlands of Babol are located in Mazandaran province, northern Iran, between 52° 35' - 52° 45' E and 36° 31' - 36° 37' N. The studied area covers five wetlands namely Marzoonabad, Langoor, Bosra, Ramenet and Agoozbon. Marzoonabad and Basra wetlands are located beside Babol-Amol road. Langoor and Agoozbon wetlands are near Babol- Bahnamir road and finally Ramenet wetland is placed beside Babol-Kiakola road. All these wetlands are located in the plain part of Babol (Figure 1). There are many cultivated places and also some canals around of the studied wetlands. These canals carry water from wetland to cultivated farms. The total surface and the mean altitude of the Babol wetlands are 1470 ha and 14.7 m respectively. The rainiest month is October. The mean annual precipitation is 738.7 mm and the mean annual temperature is 16.3 °C. The maximum and minimum mean temperatures are 29.3 °C, and 4.5 °C, respectively. The ombrothermic diagram of the studied area was prepared according to climate data obtained from the Gharakheil meteorological station (Figure 2). Three rivers namely Talar, Babol and Haraz provide water for these five wetlands and then empty their water into the Caspian sea.

 

Data collection and analyses

In order to survey the flora of Babol wetlands, topographic maps were provided at first. Then, the specimens were collected in different seasons. The collected samples were then identified and named based on the classification and terminology applied to various Flora, such as: Flora Iranica (Rechinger, 1963-1998), Flora of Iran (Assadi, 1988-2007) and Flora of Turkey (Davis, 1965-1988). All plant specimens were deposited in the Farabi Herbarium (FAR), Tehran. Life forms were named following the Raunkiaer’s classification (Raunkiaer, 1934) and chorology of species is based on Zohary (1973) and Takhtajan (1986) viewpoints. The habitat and color flower of each species were carefully noted while collecting the samples.

   

Figure 1. Location map of the five important wetlands of Babol

Figure 2. The climatic diagram based on the data from Gharakheil meteorological station covering theyears 1979-2004

Results and discussion

In this study, a total of 196 species of vascular plants were identified from Babol wetlands, which belonged to 58 families and 138 genera. There were different number of families, genera and species amoung various taxonomic groups (Table 1). The richest families in terms of the number of taxa were Poaceae (24), Cyperaceae (19), Asteraceae (16) and Fabaceae (13) respectively. Nine families possessesed two taxa and the remaining 28 families had just one taxon. As for the species richness, genera with four and exceeding species were: Cyperus (eight species), Polygonum (seven species), Potamogeton (four species), Juncus (four species), Carex (four species), Trifolium (four species) and Typha (four species). The most species-rich wetland was Marzoonabad with 111 plant taxa and the lowest species-rich wetland was Aghoozbon with 30 plant taxa. This could be due to the occurrence of more divers’ habitats and different surface area in the Marzoonabad wetland. In Langoor wetland, there were 63 taxa from 56 genera and 31 families. There were 111 plant taxa from 86 genera and 45 families in the Marzoonabad wetland. In Bosra wetland, there were 51 plant taxa from 42 genera and 26 families. In Ramenet wetland, 43 plant taxa from 38 genera and 21 families were collected and determined. In a study on Aghoozbon wetland, 30 plant taxa within 27 genera and 18 families were determined. The ratios of species/genera and genera/families for the Babol wetlands indicated a higher taxonomic diversity as compared to other wetland areas, but these wetlands had fewer species than others, because of lower surface area and higher habitat homogeniety (Table 2).

 

Table 1. The number of families and genera in the taxonomic groups

 

Pteridophyta

Angiospermae

Monocotyledones

 

Dicotyledones

Family

6

11

 

41

Genus

6

38

 

94

Species

8

62

 

126

Table 2. Comparative floristic richness and taxonomic diversity. Myankaleh (Ejtehadi et al., 2003); Anzali (Ghahreman and Attar, 2003); Amirkelayeh(Ghahreman et al., 2004); Boujagh (Naqinezhad et al., 2006); Fereydoonkenar (Hoseinzadeh, 2007).

 

Present study

Myankaleh

Anzali

Amirkelayeh

Boujagh

Fereydoonkenar

Total number of taxa (T)

196

242

291

320

248

247

Total number of genera (G)

138

169

194

213

164

176

Total number of families (F)

58

48

68

76

62

73

T/G

1.4

1.4

1.8

1.5

1.5

1.4

G/F

2.4

3.5

2.9

2.8

2.6

2.4

 

Vegetation of the wetlands

The main structure of vegetation of whole areas of the studied wetlands were relatively similar to the vegetation of other wetlands of the northern Iran (e.g. Naqinezhad et al., 2006; Asri and Eftekhari, 2002). The vegetation of these five wetlands were also relatively different from each other. The Langoor wetland which had the surface area more than 700 ha was the largest wetland in Babol. Nymphaea alba was the dominant aquatic plant in this wetland. This plant was considered as a monodominant vegetation in this wetland in the area. The Marzoonabad wetland which had the surface area as much as 400 ha was located in second status. There were many plant communities such as Nymphaea alba-Nelumbium nuciferum and Phragmites australis-Sparganium erectum in the wetland. The Bosra wetland which was more than 150 ha had the marshy mood in some parts. The special characteristic of this wetland was the occurrence of high density of Phragmites australis that served as a very valuable nesting places for lots of waterfowls. There was an obvious community of Typha domingensis-Sparganium erectum in the Ramenet wetland. Finally, one of the major characteristics of the Aghoozbon wetland was the occurence of Paspalum distichum vegetation in its Islands.

A floristic resemblance study was done to show the level of similarity between the five wetlands, using Sørensen’s (1948) similarity index (Table 3). Based on the obtained results the similarity level varied between 4.1% (Ramenet-Aghoozbon) to 29.8% (Marzoon abad-Langoor). This revealed that the floristic similarity was related to each wetland surface area and immigration of the variety of waterfowl that was carried plants seeds from other wetlands (Naqinezhad et al., 2006). It can be seen frequently between Marzoonabad and Langoor wetlands. Furthermore, less similarity between Ramenet and Aghoozbon wetlands was derived mostly from human activities and their relatively far distance. Moreover, frequency of species in each wetland indicated that with the increase in wetland surface, the number of species increases except for the Langoor wetland. This could be due to water deficiency, human interference and lack of migratory waterfowls in the Langoor wetland (Figure 3).

 

Table 3. Comparison of the flora of the five wetlands with each other using Sørensen’s coefficient (references are as Table 1) (in percentage).

 

Langoor

Bosra

Ramenet

Aghoozbon

Marzoonabad

29.8

27.1

20.7

15.7

Langoor

 

17.5

24.5

21.7

Bosra

 

 

17

7.5

Ramenet

 

 

 

4.1

 

 

Figure 3. The number of species according to their surface area in the five wetlands of study area

 

Life forms

In the total assessment of life from spectrum, therophytes made up 37% of the vegetation and were the dominant biological type in the studied area, followed by hemicryptophytes with 20%, as the second dominant life form (Figure 4). Although, therophytes occurred abundantly in desert areas (Archibold, 1995), its high presence was attributed to human activities and extensive grazing. This effect was previously observed in other studied ecosystems as well (Ghahreman et al., 2006; Ejtehadi et al., 2003; Khodadadi et al., 2009).

 

Chorological spectrum

The chorotype distributions of species in these five wetlands are as given (Figure 5). As it is shown, the flora of the study areas is much affected by pluriregional elements due to two reasons. First, the humid and wet habitats dominating the area, that harbor the bulk of the pluriregional plants adapted to wet places. Second, human activities that are responsible for the establishment of widespread weeds (Archibald, 1995; Naqinezhad et al. 2006).

 

Habitat

The results of this study showed the existence of three different habitats in the studied area as follows (Figure 7):

1-Habitat for marginal plants: These habitats were usually situated on wet places near to wetlands, plains, rivers, etc. i.e. Euphorbia helioscopia, Marrubium vulgare, Fimbristylis bisumbellata, Silene latifolia, Juncus acutus, Lathyrus hirsutus, Bupleurum marschallianum, Polygonum lapathifolium, Ranunculus marginatus, Verbascum punalense.

2-Habitat for the emergent plants, these habitats contained marshlands and places out of open water area. Plants of this habitat had the high ability to absorb large amount of water. These habitats placed at second status after marginal habitats. Some species of this habitat were: Hydrocotyle vulgaris, Oenanthe aquatica, Eclipta prostrata, Nasturtium microphyllum, Lythrum salicaria, Samolus valerandi, Ranunculus ophioglossifolius, Carex songorica, Sparganium erectum, Sagittaria sagittifolia, Phragmites australis.

3-Habitat for open water plants: These parts were characterized with some floating and submerged plants. There were fewer species existed in this habitat. Species adapted to these habitats were: Ceratophyllum demersum, Salvinia natans, Callitriche brutia, Batrachium trichophyllum, Lemna minor, Nympha alba.

A column in Table 4 is relevant to habitat diversity of plant species.The number of plant species (in number) which can be found in each habitat is summarized in Figure 6.

 

 

Figure 4. Proportion of different life forms (%) identified in the five important wetlands of Babol. Abbreviations:

Thr=Therophyte,

Hem=Hemicryptophytes,

Pha=Phanerophytes,

Hel=helophytes,

Geo=geophyte.

 

Figure 5. Proportion of various chorotypes (%) in the studied wetland sites. Abbreviations:

IT=Irano-Turanian,

M=Mediteranean,

ES=Euro-Siberian,

PL=pluriregional,

COSM=Cosmopolitan.

 

Figure 6. Proportion of species richness in different habitats of Babol wetlands.

Em (emergent plants),

Fl (floating plants),

Ma (marginal plants),

Su (submerged plants).

 

Table 4. Floristic list of the five important wetlands of Babol.

Symbols and abbreviations used in the table:

Life form: Geo (geophyte), Hel (helophyte), Hem (hemicryptophyte), Hyd (hydrophyte), Pha (phanerophyte), Thr (therophyte)

Chorotype: COSM (cosmopolitan), ES [Euro-Sibirian (Eux-Hyr=Euxino-Hyrcanian, Hyr=Hyrcanian], IT (Irano-Turanian), M (Mediterranean), PL (pluriregional)

Habitat and Ecology: Aq (aquatic habitats), Em (emergent plant), Fl (floating plant), Hyg (hygrophyte), Ma (marginal plant), Su (submerged plant)

Location: AW (Aghoozbon wetland), BW (Bosra wetland), LW (Langoor wetland), MW (Marzoonabad wetland), RW (Ramenet wetland).

 

Taxa

Habitat

Life form

Chorotype

Locality

Hb. No. (FAR)

Pteridophyta

 

 

 

 

 

Adiantaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Adiantum capillus veneris L.

Ma

Geo

PL

MW

13523

Azollaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Azolla filiculoides Lam.

Su

Hyd

PL

LW, AW

13690

Dennstaedtiaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn

Ma

Geo

COSM

MW

13778

Equisetaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Equisetum arvense L.

Em

Geo

PL

MW

13506

Equisetum ramosissimum Desf.

Ma

Geo

PL

MW

13678

Equisetum telmatia Ehrh.

Ma

Geo

PL

BW

13600

Salviniaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Salvinia natans (L.) All.

Su

Hyd

PL

RW, BW

13573

Woodsiaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Roth

Ma

Geo

COSM

MW

13524

Spermatophyta

 

 

 

 

 

Angiospermae

 

 

 

 

 

Dicotyledones

 

 

 

 

 

Amaranthaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R. Br.

Ma

Thr

PL

BW, MW

13698

Amaranthus blitoides S.Watsonvar. blitoides

Ma

Thr

PL

MW, BW

13669

Amaranthus retroflexus L.

Ma

Thr

PL

BW

13800

Amaranthus viridis L.

Ma

Thr

PL

MW

13668

Apiaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Berula angustifolia F. K. Mertens et W. D. J. Koch

Ma

Hyd

PL

BW

13769

Bupleurum marschallianum C.A. Mey.

Ma

Thr

ES-IT

MW

13749

Daucus carota L.var sativus

Ma

Hem

IT-M

LW, RW

13570

Eryngium caucasicum Trautv.

Ma

Hem

ES, IT, M

MW, LW

13673

Hydrocotyle vulgaris L.

Em

Geo

ES

AW

13529

Oenanthe aquatica (L.) Poir.

Em

Hem

ES-IT

MW, RW

13629

Pimpinella affinis Ledeb.

Ma

Hem

PL

MW

13648

Turgenia latifolia (L.) Hoffm.

Ma

Thr

ES- M-IT

RW

13718

Asteraceae

 

 

 

 

 

Artemisia annua L.

Ma

Thr

ES, IT, M

MW

13779

Bidens tripartita L.

Ma

Thr

PL

MW, BW

13701

Carduus arabicus Jacq.

Ma

Thr

ES, IT, M

RW

13714

Centaurea iberica Trevir. ex Spreng.

Ma

Thr

PL

LW, RW

13692

Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten.

Ma

Hem

PL

RW

13715

Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronquist.

Ma

Thr

COSM

MW, BW

13753

Conyzanthus squamatus (Spreng.) Tamamsch.

Ma

Hem

PL

MW

13747

Crepis pulchra L.

Ma

Thr

ES, IT, M

LW

13562

Cichorium intybus L.

Ma

Hem

PL

MW

13649

Eclipta prostrata (L.) L.

Em

Thr

PL

RW, MW, BW

13565

Lactuca serriola L.

Ma

Hem

PL

LW

13691

Senecio vernalis Waldst. & Kit.

Ma

Thr

ES , IT, M

RW

13719

Sonchus asper (L.) Hill. subsp. glaucescens (Jordan) Ball.

Ma

Hem

PL

LW, RW

13541

Sonchus oleraceus L.

Ma

Thr

PL

BW

13735

Xanthium spinosum L.

Ma

Thr

PL

MW

13674

Xanthium strumarium L.

Ma

Thr

PL

BW, LW

13762

Boraginaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Heliotropium europaeum L.

Ma

Thr

ES, IT

MW

13661

Myosotis palustris Lam.

Em

Geo

COSM

AW

13530

Brassicaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medicus

Ma

Hem

PL

MW

13645

Cardamine hirsuta L.

Em

Thr

COSM

MW

13780

Nasturtium microphyllum Boenn. ex Rchb.

Em

Hyd

PL

AW

13531

Nasturtium officinale W.T.Aiton

Em

Hyd

PL

AW, MW, LW

13504

Raphanus raphanistrum L. subsp. raphanistrum

Ma

Thr

PL

LW

13624

Rorripa islandica (Oeder) Borbas

Em

Geo

PL

AW, LW

13528

Sisymbrium irio L.

Ma

Thr

PL

MW, BW

13641

Callitrichaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Callitriche brutia Petagna

Su

Hem

ES-M

AW, MW

13538

Campanulaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Campanula rapunculus L.

Ma

Hem

ES (Hyr)

MW

13510

Caprifoliaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Sambucus ebulus L.

Ma

Geo

PL

LW, MW, RW

13611

Caryophyllaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Silene latifolia Poir.

Ma

Hem

ES, IT, M

MW

13514

Ceratophyllaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Ceratophyllum demersum L.

Su

Hyd

PL

MW, LW, RW, BW

13730

Chenopodiaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Chenopodium ambrosioides L.

Ma

Hem

PL

MW

13781

Chenopodium album L.

Ma

Thr

COSM

BW, MW

13766

Chenopodium rubrum L.

Ma

Thr

PL

BW

13761

Convolvulaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Calystegia sepium (L.) R. Br.

Ma

Geo

PL

LW

13552

Convolvulus arvensis L.

Ma

Hem

COSM

LW

13685

Cuscutaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Cuscuta campestris Yunck.

Ma

Thr

COSM

MW

13672

Euphorbiaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Acalypha australis L.

Ma

Thr

PL

MW, AW

13782

Chrozophora oblique (Vahl) Juss. ex Spreng.

Ma

Thr

IT

MW, BW

13666

Euphorbia helioscopia L.

Ma

Thr

ES, IT, M

MW

13520

Euphorbia peplus L.

Ma

Thr

ES, IT, M

MW, BW

13750

Euphorbia virgata Waldst. & Kit.

Ma

Hem

ES-IT-M

MW, BW

13654

Ricinus communis L.

Ma

Hem

PL

MW

13783

Fabaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Sequigera varia Lassen

Ma

Hem

IT

BW, LW

13597

Glycyrrhiza echinata L.

Ma

Geo

ES, IT, M

BW

13705

Lathyrus aphaca L.

Ma

Thr

ES, IT, M

MW

13503

Lathyrus hirsutus L.

Ma

Hem

ES-IT-M

RW

13572

Lotus corniculatus L.

Ma

Hem

PL

LW, MW

13689

Medicago lupulina L.

Ma

Hem

PL

BW

13602

Medicago polymorpha L.

Ma

Thr

IT, M

LW

13563

Melilotus indicus (L.) All.

Ma

Thr

PL

MW

13660

Trifolium campestre Schreb.

Ma

Thr

ES-IT-M

BW

13595

Trifolium lappaceum L.

Ma

Thr

ES-IT-M

MW

13764

Trifolium repens L.

Ma

Geo

ES, IT, M

MW

13770

Trifolium resupinatum L.

Ma

Thr

ES, IT, M

MW, LW

13509

Vicia sativa L.

Ma

Thr

ES, IT, M

MW

13505

Halorragaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Myriophyllum verticillatum L.

Su

Hyd

COSM

LW, MW

13626

Hypericaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Hypericum perforatum L.

Ma

Hem

PL

LW, BW

13628

Lamiaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Lycopus europaeus L.

Ma

Geo

PL

MW

13748

Marrubium vulgare L.

Ma

Geo

PL

LW

13546

Mentha aquatica L.

Em

Geo

ES

MW

13774

Mentha langifolia (L) Hudson

Ma

Hem

PL

LW

13775

Teucrium hyrcanicum Steud.

Ma

Geo

ES (Hyr)

LW, MW

13619

Lentibulariaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Utricularia australis R. Br.

Su

Hyd

PL

MW

13637

Lythraceae

 

 

 

 

 

Ammania baccifera L.

Ma

Thr

PL

BW

13706

Lythrum salicaria L.

Em

Hel

PL

MW, BW, RW

13756

Malvaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Abutilon theophrasti Medik.

Ma

Thr

PL

MW, RW

13670

Moraceae

 

 

 

 

 

Ficus carica L. subsp. carica

Ma

Pha

IT-M

AW

13786

Morus alba L.

Ma

Pha

IT

AW

13785

Nelumbonaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Nelumbium nuciferum Gaertn.

Fl

Hyd

PL

MW

13788

Nymphaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Nympha alba L.

Fl

Hyd

ES-M

AW, MW, BW, LW, RW

13787

Onagraceae

 

 

 

 

 

Epilobium hirsutum L.

Ma

Geo

PL

LW, AW

13734

Oxalidaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Oxalis corniculata L.

Ma

Thr

PL

RW, BW

13571

Phytolaccaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Phytolacca americana L.

Ma

Hem

PL

MW

13789

Plantaginaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Plantago major L.

Ma

Hem

PL

LW, BW

13540

Polygonaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Polygonum aviculare L.

Ma

Thr

PL

BW

13757

Polygonum barbatum L.

Ma

Geo

PL

BW

13708

Polygonum hydropiper L

Ma

Thr

ES, IT

MW

13776

Polygonum hyrcanicum Rech. f.

Ma

Hem

ES

BW, LW

13759

Polygonum lapathifolium L. subsp. lapathifolium

Ma

Thr

ES, IT

MW, BW

13745

Polygonum patulum M. Bieb.

Ma

Thr

ES, IT

LW

13607

Polygonum persicaria L.

Ma

Thr

PL

RW, AW

13579

Rumex pulcher L.

Ma

Hem

ES, IT, M

RW

13569

Rumex sanguineus L.

Ma

Hem

ES

RW

13790

Portulacaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Portulaca oleracea L.

Ma

Thr

ES, IT, M

MW

13791

Primulaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Anagalis arvensis L.

Ma

Thr

PL

MW, LW

13550

Samolus valerandi L.

Em

Hem

PL

LW, MW

13554

Punicaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Punica granatum L.

Ma

Pha

ES, IT

LW

13556

Ranunculaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Batrachium trichophyllum (Chaix) Bosch

Su

Hyd

PL

AW, LW, MW

13537

Ranunculus ophioglossifolius Vill.

Em

Thr

ES, IT, M

RW

13589

Ranunculus marginatus d'Urv.

Ma

Thr

PL

MW

13651

Ranunculus scleratus L.

Em

Thr

PL

AW

13532

Rosaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Potentilla reptans L.

Ma

Hem

ES, IT

LW, RW

13792

Rubus caesius L.

Ma

Pha

ES, IT

LW, RW

13618

Rubus hyrcanus Juz.

Ma

Pha

ES

LW

13716

Rubus sanctus Schreb.

Ma

Pha

ES, IT

LW, RW

13617

Rubiaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Galium elongatum C. Presl

Em

Hyd

ES

BW

13593

Galium ghilanicum Stapf

Ma

Thr

ES, IT, M

RW, LW

13582

Salicaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Populus nigra L.

Ma

Pha

ES, IT, M

RW, MW

13793

Salix alba L.

Ma

Pha

ES, IT

AW, LW

13796

Scrophulariaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Kickxia elatine (L.) Dumort.

Ma

Thr

M

MW.LW

13662

Verbascum punalense Boiss. & Buhse

Ma

Hem

ES, IT

LW

13684

Veronica anagallis-aquatica L.

Em

Hem

PL

AW, LW

13551

Veronica persica Poir.

Ma

Thr

PL

BW

13598

Veronica polita Fr.

Ma

Thr

PL

BW

13599

Solanaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Datura innoxia Mill.

Ma

Thr

PL

MW

13771

Datura stramonium L.

Ma

Thr

PL

MW

13773

Solanum persicum Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. subsp. persicum

Ma

Pha

ES, IT

AW, MW

13743

Solanum nigrum L.

Ma

Thr

PL

BW, MW

13703

Tamaricacaeea

 

 

 

 

 

Tamarix ramosissima Ledeb.

Ma

Pha

PL

LW

13614

Urticaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Parietaria officinalis L.

Ma

Hem

ES

MW

13511

Urtica dioica L.

Ma

Hem

PL

MW

13798

Urtica urens L.

Ma

Thr

PL

MW

13799

Verbenaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greene

Ma

Hem

PL

BW, MW

13760

Verbena officinalis L.

Ma

Hem

PL

RW, MW

13577

Monocotyledones

 

 

 

 

 

Alismataceae

 

 

 

 

 

Alisma plantago-aquatica L.

Em

Hyd

COSM

LW, BW

13549

Sagittaria sagittifolia L.

Em

Hyd

ES-IT-M

LW

13686

Butomaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Butomus umbellatus L.

Em

Hyd

ES-IT-M

RW, LW, BW, MW

13610

Cyperaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Bolboschoenus affinis Drobow

Em

Hyd

PL

RW, MW, LW

13581

Carex divulsa Stokes subsp. divulsa

Ma

Geo

ES-IT-M

RW

13584

Carex riparia (R. Br.) Poir.

Em

Hyd

ES

MW, RW

13525

Carex sylvatica Huds.

Em

Geo

ES-M

AW

13721

Carex songorica Kar. & Kir.

Em

Geo

IT, ES

MW, RW, AW

13517

Cyperus alternifolius L.

Ma

Geo

PL

MW

13656

Cyperus difformis L.

Ma

Thr

PL

MW

13630

Cyperus fuscus L.

Em

Thr

PL

LW, MW

13687

Cyperus longus L.

Ma

Geo

ES-IT-M

MW

13772

Cyperus odoratus L. subsp. Transcaucasicus (Kuk.) Kukkonen

Ma

Geo

ES, IT

BW, MW

13643

Cyperus pygmaeus Rottb.

Ma

Thr

PL

MW

13632

Cyperus rotundus L.

Ma

Hem

COSM

RW, BW, MW

13564

Cyperus serotinus Rottb.

Em

Hyd

PL

AW

13736

Fimbristylis bisumbellata Bubani

Ma

Thr

PL

BW, MW

13709

Pycreus flavesence (L.) Reichenb.

Em

Geo

PL

MW

13680

Pycreus flavidus (Retz.) T.Koyama

Em

Thr

PL

LW

13720

Schoenoplectus lacustris (L.) Palla

Em

Hyd

ES, IT

MW, LW, RW

13545

Schoenoplectus litoralis (Schrad.) Palla

Em

Hyd

ES, IT, M

AW

13526

Schoenoplectus mucronatus (L.) Palla

Em

Hyd

PL

BW, AW

13696

Iridaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Iris pseudacorus L.

Em

Hyd

ES

MW, LW, AW

13515

Juncaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Juncus articulatus L.

Ma

Geo

PL

BW, AW

13700

Juncus inflexus L.

Ma

Hel

PL

AW

13740

Juncus littoralis C.A.Mey.

Ma

Geo

IT-M

LW, MW

13616

Juncus acutus L.

Ma

Geo

PL

LW

13625

Lemnaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Lemna minor L.

Fl

Hyd

PL

MW, LW, AW

13658

Hydrocharitaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Najas graminea Delile

Su

Thr

PL

MW

13731

Poaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Aegilops tauschii Coss.

Ma

Thr

ES, IT, M

AW

13535

Agrostis stolonifera L.

Ma

Geo

ES , IT, M

BW

13605

Alopecurus arundinaceus Poir. var. arundinaceus

Ma

Geo

PL

AW

13534

Arundo donax L.

Ma

Geo

ES-IT-M

MW, BW

13794

Bromus japanicus Thunb.var. japonicus

Ma

Thr

PL

BW

13596

Briza minor L.

Ma

Thr

ES, M

BW

13723

Calamagrostis epigejos (L.) Roth

Ma

Geo

PL

MW

13726

Catabrosa aquatica P. Beauv.

Em

Hyd

PL

MW, LW

13500

Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.

Ma

Geo

PL

MW

13795

Dactylis glomerata L.

Ma

Hem

PL

RW

13722

Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.

Ma

Thr

PL

MW, AW

13667

Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv.

Em

Thr

PL

RW

13585

Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.

Ma

Thr

PL

MW

13635

Lolium perenne L.

Ma

Hem

COSM

RW

13567

Lophochloa phleoides (Vill.) Richb.

Ma

Thr

PL

RW

13588

Paspalum dilatatum Poir.

Ma

Geo

PL

BW, MW

13604

Paspalum distichum L.

Em

Geo

COSM

RW, MW, LW

13587

Phalaris arundinacea L.

Ma

Geo

PL

MW

13724

Phleum paniculatum Huds.var. ciliatum (Boiss.) Bor

Ma

Thr

ES

MW

13725

Phragmites australis (Cav.) Steud.

Em

Hyd

COSM

MW, RW, BW

13732

Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) Desf.

Ma

Thr

PL

MW, LW

13502

Polypogon semiverticillatus (Forssk.) H. Hyl.

Ma

Thr

PL

MW

13664

Setaria glauca (L.) P. Beauv.

Ma

Thr

PL

LW, BW

13621

Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.

Ma

Geo

PL

MW

13659

Potamogetonaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Potamogeton crispus L.

Su

Hyd

PL

MW, LW

13560

Potamogeton lucens L.

Su

Hyd

PL

RW, LW, MW

13575

Potamogeton nodosus Poir.

Su

Hyd

PL

MW

13647

Potamogeton pectinatus L.

Su

Hyd

COSM

LW, MW

13558

Sparganiaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Sparganium erectum L. subsp.neglectum (Beeby) K. Richter

Em

Geo

ES

AW, LW, MW

13536

Typhaceae

 

 

 

 

 

Typha angustifolia L.

Em

Hyd

PL

RW

13713

Typha caspica Pobed.

Em

Hyd

ES (Eux-Hyr)

AW

13738

Typha domingensis Pers.

Em

Hyd

PL

LW

13608

Typha latifolia L.

Em

Hyd

COSM

RW, MW

13797

 

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Asri, Y. and Moradi, A. (2004) Floristic and phytosociological studies of Amirkelayeh Lagoon. Journal of Agricultural Science and Natural Resource 11: 171-179.

Asri, Y., Sharifnia, F. and Gholami, T. (2007) Plant associations in Miankaleh biosphere reserve, Mazandaran province (N. Iran). Rostaniha 8: 1-16 (in Persian with English summary).

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