معرفی فلور، شکل زیستی و پراکنش جغرافیایی گیاهان جنگل‌های پست نور و سیسنگان

نویسندگان

گروه زیست‌شناسی، دانشکده علوم پایه، دانشگاه مازندران، بابلسر، ایران

چکیده

مناطق پست هیرکانی (خزری) شامل لکه‌های به جامانده از جنگل‌های خزان‌کننده اروپا-سیبری است که در سه استان گیلان، مازندران و گلستان پراکنده است. نور و سیسنگان دو تکه بزرگ از این جنگل‌های پست هستند که با عنوان "پارک جنگلی" در مفهوم "منابع طبیعی ایران" طبقه‌بندی شده‌اند. با وجود برخی مطالعات محلی بر روی این جنگل‌ها، هنوز دانش کافی در مورد فلور و پوشش گیاهی این مناطق وجود ندارد. گونه‌های گیاهی جمع‌آوری شده از این مناطق نشان‌دهنده وجود 225 گونه گیاهی متعلق به 175 جنس و 77 تیره گیاهی است. Poaceae با 28، Asteraceae با 18 و Rosaceae با 9 گونه، به ترتیب بیشترین غنای گونه‌ای را نشان می‌دهند. جنس‌های دارای بیشترین تعداد گونه به ترتیب Carex (با 6 گونه)، Veronica (با 5 گونه) و Euphorbia، Polygonum و Solanum (هر کدام با 4 گونه) هستند. به لحاظ طیف شکل زیستی، تروفیت‌ها با 2/30% اشکال زیستی غالب را تشکیل می‌دهند و به دنبال آن، ژئوفیت‌ها (1/27%)، همی‌کریپتوفیت‌ها (9/20%)و فانروفیت‌ها (2/18%) قرار دارند. فلور این مناطق، عمدتاً از عناصر چندناحیه‌ای با 60 تاکسون (3/27%) و سپس عناصر اروپا-سیبری/ایرانی-تورانی/مدیترانه‌ای با 43 تاکسون (5/19%) تشکیل شده است. درصد هر کدام از عناصر جغرافیایی و اشکال زیستی به طور اختصاصی برای هر جنگل ارائه می‌شود. بر اساس شاخص تشابه سورنسن، برخی شباهت‌های فلوریستیکی بین دو جنگل وجود دارد. جنگل‌های پست نور و سیسنگان، به علت فشار فعالیت‌های انسانی و چرای دام، در معرض خطر حذف گونه‌های گیاهی و یا تغییر جوامع طبیعی هستند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

A contribution to flora, life form and chorology of plants in Noor and Sisangan lowland forests

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza Naqinezhad
  • Somayeh Zarezadeh
Department of Biology, Faculty of Basic Sciences, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran
چکیده [English]

Lowland Hyrcanian (Caspian) areas possess a number of important remnant patches of deciduous Euro-Siberian forests distributed sparsely in the three Iranian provinces, Guilan, Mazandaran and Golestan. Noor and Sisangan are two large patches of such lowland forests classified as “natural forest parks” in the context of “Iranian Natural Resources”. In spite of a few local studies, broad knowledge upon the flora and vegetation of these areas are lacking. A total of 225 species belonging to 175 genera and 77 plant families were collected from the studied areas. The largest families in terms of species richness, were Poaceae (28 spp.), Asteraceae (18 spp.) and Rosaceae (9 spp.), respectively. The genera with the largest number of species were Carex (6 spp.), Veronica (5 spp.) and Euphorbia, Polygonum, Solanum (each with 4 spp.), respectively. In the assessment of life form spectrum, the dominant life forms were therophytes (30.2%), followed by the geophytes (27.1%), hemicryptophytes (20.9%) and phanerophytes (18.2%). The flora was mostly composed of pluriregional elements with 60 taxa (27.3%), followed by Euro-Siberian/Irano-Turanian/Mediterranean elements with 43 taxa (19.5%). Life form spectra and chorotype percentages were discussed for each study area separately. According to Sørensen’s (1948) similarity index, there was a remarkable similarity between two forest areas. Noor and Sisangan forests were highly threatened ecosystems in case of species loss and changing natural communities due to occurrence of anthropogenic and over-grazing effects.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Flora
  • Lowland Hyrcanian forest
  • Life Form
  • Noor and Sisangan

Introduction

Hyrcanian (Caspian) forests extend from Talish area of Azerbaijan Republic in the west to Golestan National Park of Golestan in the east and constitute a green cover across the northern slopes of the Alborz Mountains. These forests are related to an unique climate with high annual precipitation (ranging from 600 to 2000 mm) and considered to be largely compatible with the Euro-Siberian forest structure (Frey and Probst, 1986). The forests of the south Caspian area have been severely degraded and deforested; particularly, in the alluvial and lowlands where only small remnants of the forests exist now. Due to this land conversion, many plant species were restricted to isolated remnants of a formerly more widespread lowland habitats (Ghahreman et al., 2006). A considerable number of vegetation and floristic investigations have been conducted especially in the mountain and sub-mountain forests of Hyrcanian area (e.g. Djazirei, 1965; Mobayen and Tregubov, 1970; Dorostkar and Noirfalise, 1976; Assadollahi, 1980; Mossadegh, 1981; Hamzeh'ee, 1994; Akhani, 1998; Klein, 2001; Akbarinia et al., 2004; Esmailzadeh et al., 2007; Atashgahi et al., 2009; Naqinezhad et al., 2010). However, necessity of an extensive floristic and vegetation studies in the remained lowland patches is felt more than ever. There are some specific investigations particularly on the lowland areas (Rastin, 1983; Tabari et al., 2002; Ghahreman et al., 2006; Hamzeh'ee et al., 2008; Naqinezhad et al., 2008; Ghahremaninejad et al., 2011; Asadi et al., 2011). For instance, Tabari et al (2002) provided some information on the distribution and vegetation structure of Fraxinus excelsior in the lowland Hyrcanian forests. Likewise, a detailed vegetation and floristic survey was done particularly on the Alnus glutinosa subsp. barbata patches in northern Iran (Ghahreman, et al., 2006; Hamzeh’ee et al., 2008).

Noor and Sisangan are two large patches of such lowland forests classified as “natural forest parks” in the context of “Iranian Natural Resources” (Mazandaran Natural Resources Office, 2012). It may be proclaimed that these forests are the only remnants of Caspian lowland forests, due to the destruction and severe damage by animals and humans in recent years (Barzehkar, 1994; Hamzeh’ee et al., 2008). Sisangan is known by the occurrence of pure stands of Buxus hyrcana, an endemic Hyrcanian woody species which has been largely destroyed from the other parts of the Hyrcanian forest. Likewise, one of the main habitats of Populus caspica, a rare tree in the area, is located in Noor forest. Detailed floristic and vegetation studies should be conducted to provide a basic framework for further ecological and conservational studies on these highly threatened ecosystems. By now, no comprehensive study has been accomplished in these two areas particularly on all parts of the forests and forest margins. The aimes of the current investigation are (1) representing a complete and updated checklist of all plant species of these two areas; (2) assessing some species-related characters such as life form and chorology in the areas; and (3) comparing the flora of the two forest areas with each other and with other forest areas studied in the Hyrcanian area.

 

Materials and Methods

Study sites

Noor forest is located between 52° 00´ to 52° 06´ E and 36° 32´ to 36° 34´ N with a 3600 hectare surface area. The forest is surrounded by main transitional Noor-Nowshahr road in the north, Noor-Chamestan road in the west, Afraseyabkola village in the south and Hashemrud river and Izdeh forests in the east. The area is generally flat. Sisangan forest is located between 51° 47´ to 51° 49´ E and 36° 33´ to 36° 34´ N, in 27 km east of Nowshahr, Mazandaran. The total area of the forest is approximately 602 hectare and is generally flat. The forest faces Caspian Sea and main transitional road in the north, Tooskatook village in the west, Salahedinkala in the east and south (Figure 1).

 

 

Figure 1. Locations of the Noor and Sisangan forests in the Hyrcanian lowland area

 

Data collection

Data was collected during March to November of 2011. Floristic data were collected by using 62 relevés with the area of 400 m2 surface in Noor and 20 relevés with the area of 100 m2 in Sisangan forests. Different sizes of relevés were allocated to different vegetation physiognomy and plant density and richness. Sisangan forest was covered mainly by mono-dominant Buxus hyrcana trees or shrubs with low herbaceous ground vegetation. Other species found beyond the relevés were also considered for our floristic survey. Plant determination was carried out using Rechinger (1963-2010), Assadi et al., (1988-2011), Davis (1965-1988), Komarov (1968-1980), Townsend et al., (1966-1985), Ghahreman (1979-2003). Moreover, the ferns were identified using Khoshravesh et al., (2009). All plant names and their authors were checked by IPNI website (www.ipni.org). The classification system of The angiosperm phylogeny group (2009) was used for family names. The life form of each species followed Raunkiaer’s classification system (Raunkiaer, 1934). The terminology and delimitation of the main phytochoria was based on the concepts applied by Zohary (1973), Léonard (1988) and Takhtajan (1986). In this article, PL (Pluriregional elements) are plants ranging in distribution over three phytogeographical regions, SCOS (sub-cosmopolitan elements) are plants ranging in distribution over most continents but not all of them and COS (cosmopolitan elements) referring to plants that have a broad worldwide distribution. Floristic similarity between two forests was evaluated using Sørensen’s (1948) similarity index.

 

Results

Floristic study in Noor forest showed the occurrence of 185 plant species belonging to 149 genera and 68 families while the number of determined plants in the Sisangan forest was 137 species belonging to 111 genera and 57 families. Totally, 225 plant species from 176 genera and 77 families were collected from these two forests. Among the 77 plant families, nine families were Pteridophytes and 68 were Angiosperms (Table 1). Eudicots with 56 families, 123 genera and 160 species were the richest group, while monocots had 12 families, 40 genera and 50 species in the studied flora (Table 2).

 

 

 

Table 1.Checklist of identified plant species in Noor and Sisangan lowland forests

Symbols and abbreviation used in Table 1:

Life forms: Chamaephyte (Ch), Bulbose geophyte (GB), Geophyte with corm (GC), Rhizomatose geophyte (GR), Stoloniferous geophyte (GS), Tuber geophyte (GT), Hemicryptophyte (Hem), Helophyte (Hel), Hydrophyte (Hyd), Phanerophyte (Ph), Therophyte (Th).

Chorotypes:  Caucasian (Cau), Cosmopolitan (COS), Endemic (En), Euro-Sibirian (ES), Euxino-Hyrcanian (Euxino-Hyr), Hyrcanian (Hyr), Irano-Turanian (IT), Mediterranean (M), Pluriregional (PL), Subcosmopolitan (SCOS), Saharo-Sindian (SS), North (N), South (S), East (E), West (W), Afghanistan (Afgh), Azerbaijan (Azer), Himalaya (Him), Khorasan (Khor), Mountains (Mts), Pakistan (Pak), Temperate (Temp), Transcaucasus (Transcau), Turkmenistan (Turk).

Habitats: Inside of Noor forest (NI), Margin of Noor forest (NM), Inside of Sisangan forest (SI), Margin of Sisangan forest (SM).

Taxon

Life form

Chorotype

Habitat

Pteridophytes

 

 

 

Aspleniaceae

 

 

 

Asplenium adiantum-nigrum (L.)

GR

PL

NI-SI

Phyllitis scolopendrium (L.) Newman

GR

PL (N Temp.)

NI-SI

Dennstaedtiaceae

 

 

 

Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn

GR

COS

NI

Dryopteridaceae

 

 

 

Dryopteris pallida (Bory) Fomin

GR

M [Hyr]

NI

Polystichum aculeatum (L.) Roth

GR

PL

NI

Polystichum woronowii Fomin

GR

Euxino-Hyr

NI

Equisetaceae

 

 

 

Equisetum telmateia Ehrh.

GR

PL (N Temp.)

NI-NM

Onocleaceae

 

 

 

Matteuccia struthiopteris (L.) Tod.

GR

PL

NI

Ophioglossaceae

 

 

 

Ophioglossum vulgatum L.

GR

PL (N Temp.)

NI-SI

Polypodiaceae

 

 

 

Polypodium vulgare L.

GR

PL

NI-SI

Pteridaceae

 

 

 

Adiantum capillus-veneris L.

GR

PL

NI

Pteris creica L.

GR

PL

NI-SI

Pteris dentata Forssk.

GR

PL

NI

Woodsiaceae

 

 

 

Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Roth.

GR

PL (N Temp.)

NI

Angiosperms

 

 

 

Dicotyledones

 

 

 

Adoxaceae

 

 

 

Sambucus ebulus L.

GR

ES,IT2,M, N Africa

NI-NM-SM

Amarantaceae

 

 

 

Alternanthera sessilis (L.) DC.

Th

PL (Neophyte)

NM

Amaranthus hybridus L.

Th

PL (Neophyte)

SM

Amaranthus blitum L.

Th

PL

SM

Apiaceae

 

 

 

Bupleurum marschallianum C.A.Mey.

GR

Cau, Hyr [Azer]

NM-SM

Eryngium caucasicum Trautv.

Hem

IT2,3,4, Cau

NM-SM

Pimpinella affinis Ledeb.

Hem

IT2,Cau,Euxino-Hyr

NI-SM

Sanicula europaea L.

Hem

ES [M]

NI

Torilis arvensis Link

Th

PL

NI-SI

Apocynaceae

 

 

 

Periploca graeca L.

Ph

M(E), ES(Euxino-Hyr+S)

NI-NM

Araliaceae

 

 

 

Hedera pastuchovii Woronow

Ph

Cau (Transcau), Hyr

NI-SI

Asteraceae

 

 

 

Artemisia annua L.

Th

M, IT2,3, Cau

NM-SM

Bidens tripartita Bigelow

Th

PL

NM

Carduus arabicus Jacq.

Th

M, IT1,2

NM-SM

Carpesium abrotanoides L.

Hem

PL

SM

Carpesium cernuum L.

Hem

PL

NI-NM-SM

Cichorium intybus L.

Hem

PL

NM-SM

Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.

Hem

PL

NI

Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronquist

Th

COS

NI-NM-SM

Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist

Th

SCOS (Neophyte)

SM

Conyzanthus squamatus (Spreng.) Tamamsch.

Hem

PL (Neophyte)

NM-SM

Eclipta prostrata (L.) L.

Th

PL

NM-SM

Senecio vernalisWaldst. & Kit.

Hem

ES, IT2

SM

Siegesbeckia orientalis L.

Th

PL

NI-SM

Sonchus asper (L.) Hill

Th

IT, M

NM

Sonchus oleraceus L.

Th

PL

NI-SM

Tagetes minuta L.

Th

PL (Neophyte)

SM

Willemetia tuberosa Fisch. & C.A.Mey. ex DC.

GT

Cau, Hyr, IT2

NI

Xanthium brasilicum Vell.

Th

M, IT2

NM

Betulaceae

 

 

 

Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.

Ph

Cau, Euxino-Hyr

NI-SI

Alnus subcordata C.A.Mey.

Ph

Endem (Hyr)

NI

Carpinus betulus L.

Ph

ES [Alborz]

NI-SI

Boraginaceae

 

 

 

Cynoglossum officinale L.

Hem

ES, M, Euxino-Hyr [IT2,3,4]

NI

Lindelofia kandavanensis Bornm. & Gauba

Hem

Endem (Iran-Hyr)

NI-NM-SM

Buglossoides purpurocaerulea (L.) I.M. Johnst.

Hem

ES [M]

SM

Lithospermum officinale L.

GR

ES, M, IT2,3,4

SM

Nonea lutea (Desr.) A.DC.

Th

ES (Cau) [IT2]

NI-NM

Brassicaceae

 

 

 

Brassica tournefortii Gouan

Th

M, SS, IT2,3, N Africa

NM

Cardamine hirsuta L.

Th

SCOS

NI

Cardamine tenera Boiss.

GR

Cau (Hyr)

NI

Lepidium ruderale L.

Hem

IT2

NM-SM

Nasturtium officinale R.Br.

Hem

ES, IT, M

NM

Buxaceae

 

 

 

Buxus hyrcana Pojark.

Ph

Endem (Hyr)

SI-SM

Campanulaceae

 

 

 

Campanula rapunculoides L.

Hem

ES [IT, M]

SM

Cannabaceae

 

 

 

Celtis australis L.

Ph

M, N Africa

SI-SM

Caryophyllaceae

 

 

 

Cerastium glomeratum Thuill.

Th

PL

NI-NM-SM

Minuartia hybrida (Vill.) Schischk.

Th

M, ES (European Russia), IT1,2

SM

Polycarpon tetraphyllum (L.) L.

Th

M, IT2 [SS]

SM

Stellaria media Cirillo

Th

COS

NI-SI-NM-SM

Amaranthaceae

 

 

 

Chenopodium album subsp. album L.

Th

SCOS

SM

Convolvulaceae

 

 

 

Calystegia sepium (L.) R. Br.

GR

PL

NI-NM-SM

Calystegia silvatica (Kit.) Griseb.

GR

ES [IT-Azer]

SM

Cornaceae

 

 

 

Cornus australis C.A.Mey.

Ph

ES, IT1,2

NI-SM

Crassulaceae

 

 

 

Sedum stoloniferum S.G.Gmel.

Hem

Cau, Euxino-Hyr

NM

Dipsacaceae

 

 

 

Dipsacus pilosus L.

Hem

ES

NM

Ebenaceae

 

 

 

Diospyros lotus L.

Ph

Cau (Transcau), Euxino-Hyr [Himalaya]

NI-SI

Euphorbiaceae

 

 

 

Acalypha australis L.

Th

PL (Neophyte)

NM

Euphorbia amygdaloides L.

GR

ES, M, N Africa

NI-SM

Euphorbia peplus L.

Th

PL

NI-SM

Euphorbia sp.

Th

 

NM

Euphorbia turcomanica Boiss.

Th

IT2,3,4, Cau

NM-SM

Mercurialis perennis L.

GR

ES [N Africa]

NI

Fabaceae

 

 

 

Albizia julibrissin Durazz.

Ph

Euxino-Hyr [China+Japon]

SI

Coronilla varia L. subsp. varia

Hem

ES, M, IT2

NM-SM

Gleditsia caspica Desf.

Ph

Endem (Hyr) [Turk]

NI

Lotus corniculatus L.

Hem

PL

SM

Medicago lupulina L.

Hem

PL

NM

Trifolium campestre Schreb.

Th

ES, M, IT1,2, N Africa [SS]

NM-SM

Trifolium resupinatum L. var. resupinatum

Th

ES, M, IT2,3,4, N Africa

NM-SM

Vicia tetrasperma (L.) Schreb.

Hem

PL

NM

Fagaceae

 

 

 

Quercus castaneifolia C.A.Mey.

Ph

Endem (Hyr) [Khor]

NI-SI

Gentianaceae

 

 

 

Centaurium pulchellum (Sw.) Druce

Th

ES, IT, N Africa

SM

Geraniaceae

 

 

 

Geranium columbinum L.

Hem

ES, M, N Africa [Azer]

NM-SM

Geranium molle L.

Th

ES, IT, M, N Africa

NI-SM

Geranium robertianum L.

Hem

PL

SI-SM

Hamamelidaceae

 

 

 

Parrotia persica C.A.Mey

Ph

Hyr [Azer]

NI-SI

Hypericaceae

 

 

 

Hypericum androsaemum L.

Ch

ES, M, N Africa [IT-Azer+Turk]

NI

Hypericum hirsutum L.

Hem

ES (Cau+E+Euxino-Hyr), NW Africa

NI

Hypericum perforatum L.

Hem

PL

NM-SM

Juglandaceae

 

 

 

Pterocarya fraxinifolia (Poir.) Spach

Ph

Cau, Euxino-Hyr

NI-SI

Lamiaceae

 

 

 

Ajuga reptans L.

GS

ES [M+N Africa]

NI

Clinopodium umbrosum (M. Bieb.) K. Koch

GR

Cau, Euxino-Hyr [Afgh+Him+N India]

NI-SM

Lamium album L. subsp. album

GR

ES, IT

NI-SI

Lycopus europaeus L.

GS

PL

NI-NM

Mentha aquatica L.

GS

PL

NI-SM

Prunella vulgaris L.

GR

PL

NI-SM

Scutellaria tournefortii Benth.

GR

Hyr [Azer+Afgh]

NI-SM

Teucrium hyrcanicum L.

GR

Cau (Transcau), Euxino-Hyr

NM-SM

Linaceae

 

 

 

Linum bienne Mill.

Hem

ES,IT2, M, N Africa

SM

Lythraceae

 

 

 

Lythrum salicaria L.

Hem

SCOS

NM

Punica granatum L.

Ph

PL

NI-NM

Malvaceae

 

 

 

Malva sp.

Th

 

NM

Sida rhombifolia L.

Hem

PL (Neophyte)

NM-SM

Tilia dasystyla Steven

Ph

ES

SI-SM

Tilia sp.

Ph

 

SM

Moraceae

 

 

 

Ficus carica L.

Ph

M, IT2, Cau

NI-SI

Morus alba L.

Ph

IT

NI-SI

Oleaceae

 

 

 

Fraxinus excelsior L. subsp. coriariifolia (Scheele) E. Murray.

Ph

Cau Euxino-Hyr [IT2]

NI

Jasminum fruticans L.

Ph

M, Cau, N Africa [IT2+S Europe]

NM

Onagraceae

 

 

 

Circaea lutetiana L.

GR

ES, IT, M, N Africa

NI-SI

Epilobium hirsutum L.

GR

PL

NI-NM

Orobanchaceae

 

 

 

Orobanche cernua Loefl.

Hem

PL

NI

Oxalidaceae

 

 

 

Oxalis corniculata L.

Th

COS

NI-SM

Papaveraceae

 

 

 

Chelidonium majus L.

Hem

ES, M, IT3, N Africa

SM

Phytulaccaceae

 

 

 

Phytolacca americana L.

Hem

PL (Neophyte)

SM

Plantaginaceae

 

 

 

Kickxia elatine (L.) Dumort. subsp. crinite (Mabille.) Greuter.

Th

IT, M

NM

Plantago lanceolata L.

Hem

ES, IT, M, SS, N Africa

NM-SM

Plantago major L.

Hem

SCOS

NM-SM

Veronica anagallis-aquatica L. subsp. michauxii (Lam.) A. Jelen.

Hem

IT

NM

Veronica arvensis L.

Th

ES, IT, M

NI

Veronica crista-galli Steven

Th

Cau, Hyr

NI-SI

Veronica francispetae M.A.Fisch.

Th

Endem (Iran-Hyr)

NI-SI

Veronica persica Poir.

Th

SCOS

NI

Polygonaceae

 

 

 

Polygonum hydropiper L.

Th

ES, IT, M

NM

Polygonum hyrcanicum Rech.f.

Hem

Endem (Iran-Hyr) [Alborz]

NM-SM

Polygonum lapathifolium L.

Th

ES, IT, M

NI-NM-SM

Polygonum patulum M.Bieb.

Hem

M, IT2,3, Cau

NM

Rumex sanguineus L.

Hem

ES [M]

NI-SM

Portulacaceae

 

 

 

Portulaca oleracea L.

Th

COS

NM

Primulaceae

 

 

 

Anagallis arvensis L.

Th

ES, IT

SM

Cyclamen coum Mill. subsp. caucasicum (K.Koch.) Meikle

GT

Cau, Euxino-Hyr

NI-SI

Primula heterochroma Stapf

Hem

Endem (Hyr) [Semnan]

NI

Ranunculaceae

 

 

 

Batrachium trichophyllum (Chaix) Bosch

Hyd

SCOS

NM

Ranunculus dolosus Fisch. & C.A.Mey.

Th

Endem (Hyr)

NI

Ranunculus muricatus L.

Th

IT, M, Cau, N Africa

NI-SM

Ranunculus ophioglossifolius Vill.

Th

ES, M, Euxino-Hyr, N Africa [IT2]

NM

Rhamnaceae

 

 

 

Paliurus spina-christi Mill. var. spina-christi

Ph

M, IT2,3

NM-SM

Rosaceae

 

 

 

Crataegus microphylla K.Koch

Ph

Cau, Euxino-Hyr [Krym, E Bulgaria]

NI-SI

Geum urbanum L.

GR

ES, IT2,3, N Africa

NI-NM-SM

Mespilus germanica L.

Ph

M (E), IT2, ES (Cau+Euxino-Hyr+S Europe)

NI-SM-NM

Potentilla reptans L.

Hem

ES, IT, M, N Africa [SS]

NI

Prunus divaricata Ledeb. subsp. caspica(Kov. & Ekim.) Browicz

Ph

Cau, Hyr [IT]

NI-SI

Rubus caesius L.

Ph

ES, IT

NI-SM

Rubus persicus Boiss.

Ph

Endem (Hyr)

NI-SM

Rubus sanctus Kuntze

Ph

IT, M, Cau

NM-SM

Sanguisorba minor Scop.

Hem

ES, M, IT2,3, N Africa

NI-NM

Rubiaceae

 

 

 

Galium ghilanicum Stapf

Th

IT, Cau

NI-SM

Salicaceae

 

 

 

Populus caspica (Bornm.) Bornm.

Ph

IT2,3, Cau

NI

Salix alba L.

Ph

ES, IT, M, N Africa

NM

Salix sp.

Ph

 

SI-SM

Sapindaceae

 

 

 

Acer cappadocicum Gled.

Ph

Euxino-Hyr, Cau [Pak]

SI

Acer velutinum Boiss. var. glabrescens

Ph

Endem (Hyr)

NI-SI

Acer velutinum Boiss. var. velutinum

Ph

Endem (Hyr)

NI

Scrophulariaceae

 

 

 

Scrophularia vernalis L. subsp. clausii (Boiss. & Buhse) Grau.

Hem

Hyr [IT-Azer+Semnan]

NI

Verbascum sp.

Hem

 

SM

Solanaceae

 

 

 

Atropa belladona L.

GR

ES, M

SM

Physalis alkekengi L.

GR

ES, IT2,3,4

SM

Solanum dulcamara L.

Ph

IT2, ES (Cau, S Russia)

NI-NM

Solanum kieseritzkii C.A.Mey.

GR

Endem (Hyr)

NM

Solanum nigrum L.

Th

COS

NI-SI-SM

Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam.

Ph

PL

SM

Tamaricaceae

 

 

 

Tamarix ramosissima Ledeb.

Ph

ES, IT

NM

Ulmaceae

 

 

 

Ulmus glabra Huds.

Ph

ES,[ IT, M]

SI

Ulmus minor Mill.

Ph

ES, M, N Africa

NI-SI-NM

Zelkova carpinifolia Dippel

Ph

Cau, Euxino-Hyr [IT2-Iran]

NI-SI-NM

Urticaceae

 

 

 

Parietaria officinalis L.

GR

ES [IT, M]

NI

Urtica dioica L.

GR

PL

NI-SI

Verbenaceae

 

 

 

Verbena officinalis L.

Hem

SCOS

NM-SM

Violaceae

 

 

 

Viola alba Besser

GR

ES, M, N Africa

NI-SI

Viola odorata L.

GR

ES, IT, M, N Africa

NI-SI

Zygophyllaceae

 

 

 

Tribulus terrestris L. var. orientalis

Th

PL

NM

Monocotyledones

 

 

 

Alismataceae

 

 

 

Alisma plantago-aquatica L.

Hyd

PL

NM

Araceae

 

 

 

Arum maculatum L.

GR

ES

NI

Lemna minor L.

Hyd

COS

NM

Cyperaceae

 

 

 

Carex divulsa Gooden. subsp. divulsa

GR

ES, IT, M, N Africa

NI-SI

Carex grioletii Roem. ex Schkuhr

GR

M, Cau, Euxino-Hyr

NI

Carex remota L.

GR

ES, M, N Africa

NI-SI

Carex songorica Kar. & Kir.

GR

IT2,3,4, ES (Cau+Russia) [East Asia]

NM

Carex strigosa Huds.

GS

ES

NI-SI

Carex sylvatica Huds.

GR

ES, N Africa [Altai Mts]

NI-SI

Cyperus difformis L.

Th

PL

NM

Cyperus rotundus L.

GR

COS

NM

Dioscoreaceae

 

 

 

Tamus communis L.

GC

ES, IT2, M, N Africa

SM

Iridaceae

 

 

 

Iris pseudacorus L.

GR

ES, M, N Africa

NI-NM

Juncaceae

 

 

 

Juncus inflexus L.

Hel

PL

NM

Liliaceae

 

 

 

Ornithogalum kochii Parl.

GB

ES, [IT2-Iran]

NI

Scilla gorganica Speta

GB

Endem (Iran-Hyr)

NI

Orchidaceae

 

 

 

Limodorun abortivum (L.) Sw.

GR

ES, M [IT2-Iran]

SI

Listera ovata (L.) R.Br.

GR

PL

NI

Ophrys sphegodes Mill. subsp. sphegodes

GT

ES, M

NI-SI

Poaceae

 

 

 

Aegilops tauschii Coss.

Th

IT2, Cau

SM

Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. var. myosuroides

Th

ES, IT, M

NM

Arthraxon hispidus (Thunb.) Makino

Th

PL

NM

Brachypodium sylvaticum (L.) P.Beauv.

Hem

ES, IT2

NI-SM

Briza minor L.

Th

ES, M, IT1,2, N Africa

SM

Bromus japonicus var. japonicus Thunb.

Th

PL

NM

Catapodium rigidum (L.) C.E.Hubb. ex Dony

Th

ES, M, IT2

SM

Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.

Hem

COS

NM-SM

Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.

Th

PL

NM

Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P.Beauv. var. crus-galli

Th

SCOS

NM

Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.

Th

SCOS

NM-SM

Hordeum glaucum Steud.

Th

IT, M, N Africa [SS]

NM-SM

Lolium multiflorum Lam.

Th

ES, IT2, M, N Africa

SM

Lolium perenne L.

Hem

PL

SM

Lolium rigidum Gaudin

Th

ES, M, IT2

NM

Lophochloa phleoides (Vill.)Rchb.

Th

PL

NM-SM

Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A.Camus

Th

PL (Neophyte)

NI-SM

Milium vernale M.Bieb.

Th

ES, IT

NI

Oplismenus undulatifolius (Ard.) P.Beauv.

Hem

ES, M

NI-SI-NM-SM

Paspalum dilatatum Poir.

GR

PL (Neophyte)

NM-SM

Phragmites australis (Cav.) Steud.

Hel

PL

NM

Poa annua L.

Th

SCOS

NI-SI-SM

Poa nemoralis L.

GS

PL

NI-SI

Poa trivialis L.

GS

ES, IT, M

NI-SI

Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) Desf.

Th

PL

NM

Setaria glauca (L.) P.Beauv.

Th

SCOS

NM-SM

Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.

GR

PL

NM

Vulpia myuros (L.) C.C.Gmel.

Th

M, IT2,4

SM

Ruscaceae

 

 

 

Ruscus hyrcanus Woronow

Ch

IT2, Cau, Hyr

NI-SI

Smilacaceae

 

 

 

Smilax excelsa L.

Ph

M, Cau, Euxino-Hyr

NI-SI

Typhaceae

 

 

 

Sparganium erectum L.

Hyd

ES, M, N Africa [IT2]

NM

 

Table 2. Number of families, genera and species in the main taxonomic groups

Plant Groups

Families

Genera

Species

Eudicots

56

123

161

Monocots

12

40

50

Pteridophytes

9

12

14

 

The largest families in terms of number of genera were Poaceae (24 genera), Asteraceae (15 genera) and Lamiaceae (8 genera) (Figure 2). Poaceae (28 spp.), Asteraceae (18 spp.) and Rosaceae (9 spp.) showed the highest species richness respectively (Figure 3). The genera with the largest number of species were Carex (6 spp.), Veronica (5 spp.) and Euphorbia, Polygonum and Solanum (each with 4 spp.) respectively (Figure 4).

 

 

Figure 2. The richest families in terms of number of genera

 

 

Figure 3. The richest families in terms of number of taxa

 

 

Figure 4.The genera with the largest number of species

 

Life form and chorotype spectrum

In the assessment of life form spectrum in the two forests, the dominant life forms were therophytes, which constituted 30.2% of the studied flora, followed by the geophytes (27.1%), hemicryptophytes (20.9%) and phanerophytes (18.2%) (Figure 5). Detailed surveys of life form spectrum in the two studied forests showed that the dominant life forms within the Noor forest were geophytes (29.7%), therophytes (29.2%) and hemicryptophytes (19.5%) followed by phanerophytes (17.3%), hydrophytes (2.1%), chamaephytes and helophytes (1.1%). Nevertheless, the dominant life forms in the Sisangan forest were therophytes (29.9%), geophytes (29.6%) followed by hemicryptophytes, phanerophytes (21.9%) and chamaephytes (0.7%).

The total flora was composed mostly of pluriregional elements with 60 taxa (27.3%), followed by Euro-Siberian/Irano-Turanian/Mediterranean elements with 43 taxa (19.5%) (Figure 6). The ratio of endemism was 6.4% and included 14 taxa in the two studied forests. The flora of both forests was mostly composed of pluriregional elements with 52 taxa (28.1%) in Noor and 33 taxa (24.6%) in Sisangan forest, followed by Euro-Siberian (16.8%), Euro-Siberian/Irano-Turanian/Mediterranean (14%), Euro-Siberian/Mediterranean (9.2%), Euro-Siberian/Irano-Turanian (8.2%), endemics (7%), sub-cosmopolitan (5.4%), cosmopolitan (4.9%), Irano-Turanian/Mediterranean (4.3%), Irano-Turanian (1.6%) and Mediterranean (0.5%) elements in Noor forest and Euro-Siberian/Irano-Turanian/Mediterranean (18.7%), Euro-Siberian (18%), Euro-Siberian/Irano-Turanian (9.7%), ES/M (8.2%), endemics and sub-cosmopolitan (5.2%), Irano-Turanian/Mediterranean (4.5%), cosmopolitan (3.7%), Irano-Turanian (1.5%) and Mediterranean (0.7%) in Sisangan forest.

 

Figure 5. Life form spectrum of studied flora of Noor and Sisangan forests

 

 

Figure 6.Percentage of main chorotypes of plants studied in Noor and Sisangan forests

 

Discussion

The knowledge of the floristic composition of an area is a prerequisite for any ecological and phytogeographical study and conservation management (Siadati et al., 2010). Noor and Sisangan forests are considered as remnants of Caspian lowland forests. For the first time, Barzehkar (1994) conducted a preliminary study on vegetation of Noor forest, but detail floristic accounts of this area is still lacking. On the other hand, Sisangan forest is characterized as a unique lowland forest due to occurrence of Hyrcanian endemic plant, Buxus hyrcana. The latter species constitutes some rare pure stands across Hyrcanian lowland and submountain forests (Zohary, 1973; Rastin, 1983; Hamzeh’ee et al., 2008; Asadi et al., 2011). Likewise, Noor forest is characterized by the occurrence of Populus caspica, a rare and endangered tree species in Iran. Sisangan forest has lower plant diversity compared to Noor forest due to high density of box trees and shrubs in the former. According to a subjective observation, soil texture of the two forests is relatively different from each other and it might be considered as the main cause of differences in the floristic composition and vegetation structure between the two areas.

Based on Sørensen’s formula, the obtained similarity between the two forests was about 60 % which indicates rather high similarity of floristic compositions between the forests due to their placement within the lowlands and lacking altitudinal gradients. However, the occurrence of Buxus as mono-dominant woody species in some parts of Sisangan forest makes its floristic composition slightly different from Noor forest Park.

Since the life form classification is based essentially on plant reaction to climate, the individual spectrum should tell us much about macroclimatic patterns at field sites (Pears, 1985). Although, therophytes occur abundantly in desert areas (Archibold, 1995), more or less high occurrence of this life form indicates some anthropogenic and over-grazing effects in the study areas (Grime, 2001; Naqinezhad et al., 2006). Similar proportion of therophytes has been previously observed in some other studied ecosystems (Ghahreman et al., 2006, Naqinezhad et al., 2006, Ghahremaninejad et al., 2011). The high percentage of therophytes in the life form spectrum were also encountered elsewhere (Ozen and Kilinch, 2002; Severoglu et al., 2011). The occurrence of therophytes in the Sisangan forest is more prominent than in the Noor forest due to more anthropogenic effects in the former. Following therophytes, geophytes are next dominant life forms. The high proportion of geophytes is consistent with the results of some floristic studies in some other forest areas in the Hyrcanian district (e.g. Ghahreman et al., 2006; Akbarinia et al., 2004; Razavi, 2008; Siadati et al., 2010).

Similar to previous investigations (Ghahreman et al., 2006; Naqinezhad et al., 2010; Ghahremaninejad et al., 2011), pluriregional species constitute a remarkable proportion of the studied flora. These elements can be observed in the lower altitudes of some mountainous systems (Hegazy et al., 1998). Euro-Siberian elements constitute the large proportions of both total flora and flora of each studied forest separately. The occurrence of these elements reflects the phytogeographical link of the studied area with the Euro-Siberian region (e.g. Zohary, 1973; Takhtajan, 1986; Akhani et al., 2010).

Noor and Sisangan forests are the last remnants of the lowland Hyrcanian forests. These highly threatened ecosystems possess two rare and endemic/subendemic species (Populus caspica and Buxus hyrcana) which have been drastically exteriminated from other areas of the Hyrcanian forests. Conservation policies upon the areas should be applied seriously in order to decrease further damaging effects.

 

Acknowledgement

We are indebted to Dr. H. Zare, Botanical Garden, Nowshahr for his helps during the study. Mr. A. Dehghani and Mr. H. Gholizadeh, University of Mazandaran are thanked for their helps during the field studies.

 

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