عنوان مقاله [English]
Potentilla botschantzeviana (Syn: P. butkovii varbotschantzeviana (Adylov) Soják is reported as a new record species from N Iran for the first time. This species is identified by petioles with suppressed erecto - patent hairs; deeply divided leaflets with sparse crispate, erect indumentum especially on underside and with flower diameter of 1.2 cm. The morphological characters of Potentilla botschantzeviana (especially long style thickened at the base) are similar to the species of section Persicae (Th. Wolf) Juz., the largest section of the genus in Iran, including 12 endemic species. The photographs of plant at the flowering stage, different parts, indumentum ultra structure and distribution map are presented.
Potentilla L. (Rosaceae) is a genus comprising about 485 species (Soják, 2008) of mostly perennial herbs, growing in the open habitats of mountainous to alpine or arctic regions as well as xeric communities in the northern hemisphere (Dobeš and Paule, 2010). The genus is well distributed especially in north, northwest and west of Iran and forms important floristic elements of Alborz and Zagros mountains (Schiman-Czeika, 1969; Khatamsaz, 1993; Faghir, 2010).
Potentilla botschantzeviana T. A. Adylov was collected from north of Iran. This species has not been previously reported from Iran. Description of the species was compared with other species of the genus in Flora Iranica (Schiman-Czeika, 1969), Flora of URSS (Shishkin and Yuzepchuk, 1941), most recent papers of Soják (2008 and 2009) and Faghir (2010).
Materials and Methods
The photographs of different parts were taken by digital microscope, Dino-Lite, AN-413T model. The indumentum ultra structure was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and distribution map was presented by means of dmapw software (Morton, 2004). The collected and examined specimens are deposited in the Tehran University Herbarium (TUH).
Potentilla botschantzeviana (Syn: P. butkovii var botschantzeviana (Adylov) Soják (Figure 1)
Perennial; caudex sturdy, multicipital, covered with grayish brown relics of stipules; stems ascending or decumbent, 18-25 cm, thin, pale green, without branches, covered with erect and silky hairs; leaves digitate; petioles of radical leaves 5-8 cm; radical leaves 1.8 × 0.6 cm; leaflets 2-2.5 × 0.8 cm, with 6 teeth on each side; stipules lanceolate, 2 mm; cauline leaves with short petiole or sessile (Figure 2); inflorescence with 2-4 flowers; pedicels thin 6-8 mm (Figure 3); flowers 0.7-1.2 cm in diameter; outer sepals 3 × 1 mm; inner sepals lanceolate 5 × 1.5 cm (Figures 4 and 5); covered with erect and straight indumentums; petals yellow, emarginated (Figure 6); style thickened at the base, longer than mature achenes (Figure 12); stamens with short filaments and 20 small ovate white anthers arranged in two rows (Figure 4).
Figure 1:Potentilla botschantzeviana
Figures 2-6: 1. P. botschantzeviana; 2. Radical and cauline leaves; 3. Flowers; 4. Internal view of flowers showing stamens; 5. External view clayx and calycles; 6. Petal. scale bars: Figures 4-6 = 1 mm.
Figure 7: Scanning electron micrograph of crispate indumentum and sparse tomentum on underside of leaflets of P. botschantzeviana. Scale bars = 100 µm.
Potentilla botschantzeviana is reported for the first time from Iran based on the presence of some important characters especially crispate indumentum and sparse tomentum on underside of leaflets (Figure 7); styles thickened at the base, non broadened stigma (not distinguishable from the top part of style) (Figure 12); long sepals (Figures 4 and 5) and whitish prominent anthers (Figure 4). This species was collected from Iran: Prov. Mazandaran, at 36° 27' North and 51°17' East, in Frozkouh. 2000-2500 mm altitude (36777-TUH).
Figures 8-13: 8. Style and stigma of section Persicae and sect. Lipskyanae: 8. P. argea Boiss. & Balansa; 9. P. aucheriana Th. Wolf; 10. P. persica Boiss. & Hausskn; 11. Potentilla balansae Soják; 12. P. botschantzeviana; 13. P. mollissima Lehm. (Soják, 2009). Scale bars: Figures 8-12 = 1 mm, arrow indicates the broadened stigma in Figures 8-11 and non broadened.
Figure 14: Distribution map of P. botschantzeviana (●) in Iran
The morphological characters of Potentilla botschantzeviana (especially long style thickened at the base) are similar to species of section Persicae (Th. Wolf) Juz. Therefore authors of central Asian Flora assigned it with a group of very similar species ("P. mollissima Lehm group") to the section Persicae. This section is the largest section of the genus in Iran, including 14 species, and 12 endemic species, distributed in the north, northwest, centre and western parts of the country (Faghir et al., 2010a). The species of"P. mollissima Lehm group" are distributed in Tajikistan and adjacent regions of Turkmenistan, Afghanistan and Iran (Mesicek and Soják, 1993). These species differed from the members of sect. Persicae in having straight indumentum (Faghir et al., 2010b) and non broadened stigma (not differing morphologically from top of the style) (Figures 8-13). Based on this important differences Potentilla botschantzeviana, P. mollissima Lehm., (Syn: P. komaroviana Wolf., P. lipskyana Wolf.), P. Butkovii Botsch. and P. rvazica Juz. ex. Botsch. were referred in to section Lipskyanae Czevtajbva (Soják, 2009).
Further morphological survey of section Lipskyanae revealed that these species are so close to each other that they could be considered as varieties. According to Soják (2009) Potentilla botschantzeviana is referred to as P. butkovii var. botschantzeviana (Adylov) Soják. This species is the closest relative to P. butkovii Botsch (Syn: P. butkovii Botsch var. butkovii) so that both species posseses non broadened stigma and petioles with suppressed or erecto-patent hairs). However presence of important difference especially deeply divided leaflets, crispate indumentum and sparse tomentum on underside of leaflets; flowers diameter (1.2 cm) separates it from P. butkovii Botsch var. butkovii (Soják, 2004 and 2009).